Friday, 18 November 2016

Tulu Lesson 40: may/might + have + Past Participle

namaskAra! Welcome back!

So far we have learned how to translate ‘would have’, ‘should have’ and ‘could have’ in Tulu. Today we are going to learn one more similar structure, i.e. ‘may/might + have + Past Participle’. This form is used to talk about the possibility that something happened in the past and also used to refer to the present or future.
 
Examples:

  • He may have seen you

  • They might have gone home

  • I might have finished this work by tomorrow.

In Tulu, we have the following structure for “may/might + have + Past Participle”

Past Gerund (Perfect) + Uncertain future tense of the auxiliary verb ‘uppuni’

learn tulu

bar (barpini) – To come

batt’d + uppae = batt’duppae – I may/might have come

yAn batt'duppae – I may/might have come
I batt'duppa – You may/might have come
Aye/imbe batt'duppe – He may/might have come
Al/mOlu batt'duppal– She may/might have come
au/undu batt'dupu – It may/might have come 
nama/enkulu batt'duppa– We may/might have come
Ir/nikulu batt'duppar– You may/might have come
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr batt'dupper – They may/might have come
undekulu/aikulu batt'duppa– They may/might have come

tU (tUpini) – To see

tUd + uppae = tUduppae – I may/might have seen

yAn tUduppae – I may/might have seen
I tUduppa – You may/might have seen
Aye/imbe tUduppe – He may/might have seen
Al/mOlu tUduppal– She may/might have seen
au/undu tUduppu – It may/might have seen 
nama/enkulu tUduppa– We may/might have seen
Ir/nikulu tUduppar– You may/might have seen
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr tUdupper – They may/might have seen
undekulu/aikulu tUduppa– They may/might have seen

pO (pOpini) – To go

pOd + uppae = pOduppae - I may/might have gone

yAn pOduppae – I may/might have gone
I pOduppa – You may/might have gone
Aye/imbe pOduppe – He may/might have gone
Al/mOlu pOduppal– She may/might have gone
au/undu pOduppu – It may/might have gone 
nama/enkulu pOduppa– We may/might have gone
Ir/nikulu pOduppar– You may/might have gone
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr pOdupper – They may/might have gone
undekulu/aikulu pOduppa– They may/might have gone

mugipu (mugipuni) – To finish

 mugit’d + uppae = mugit’duppae - I may/might have finished

yAn mugit'duppae – I may/might have finished
I mugit'duppa – You may/might have finished
Aye/imbe mugit'duppe – He may/might have finished
Al/mOlu mugit'duppal– She may/might have finished
au/undu mugit'duppu – It may/might have finished 
nama/enkulu mugit'duppa– We may/might have finished
Ir/nikulu mugit'duppar– You may/might have finished
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr mugit'dupper – They may/might have finished
undekulu/aikulu mugit'duppa– They may/might have finished

Tulu: Aye ninan tUduppe
English: He may have seen you
Kannada: avanu ninnannu nODirabahudu

Tulu: akulu illaDe pOdupper
English: They might have gone home
Kannada: avaru manege hOgirabahudu

Tulu: yAn elledulai I bElen mugit’duppae
English: I might have finished this work by tomorrow.
Kannada: nAnu nALeyoLage I kelasavannu mugisirabahudu

More Examples:

par (parpini) – To drink

pard + uppae = parduppae - I may/might have drunk

yAn parduppae – I may/might have drunk
I parduppa – You may/might have drunk
Aye/imbe parduppe – He may/might have drunk
Al/mOlu parduppal– She may/might have drunk
au/undu parduppu – It may/might have drunk 
nama/enkulu parduppa– We may/might have drunk
Ir/nikulu parduppar– You may/might have drunk
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr pardupper – They may/might have drunk
undekulu/aikulu parduppa– They may/might have drunk

A (Apini) – To become

Ad + uppae = Aduppae - I may/might have become

yAn Aduppae – I may/might have been
I Aduppa – You may/might have been
Aye/imbe Aduppe – He may/might have been
Al/mOlu Aduppal– She may/might have been
au/undu Aduppu – It may/might have been / It may be so
nama/enkulu Aduppa– We may/might have been
Ir/nikulu Aduppar– You may/might have been
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr Adupper – They may/might have been
undekulu/aikulu Aduppa– They may/might have been

kalpu (kalpuni) – To learn

kalt’d + uppae = kalt’duppae – I may/might have learned

yAn kalt'duppae – I may/might have learned
I kalt'duppa – You may/might have learned
Aye/imbe kalt'duppe – He may/might have learned
Al/mOlu kalt'duppal– She may/might have learned
au/undu kalt'duppu – It may/might have learned
nama/enkulu kalt'duppa– We may/might have learned
Ir/nikulu kalt'duppar– You may/might have learned
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kalt'dupper – They may/might have learned
undekulu/aikulu kalt'duppa– They may/might have learned

Negative forms:

We have the following structure for “may/might not + have + Past Participle”

Past Gerund (Perfect) + Negative forms of the auxiliary verb ‘uppuni’ in Uncertain future tense

bar (barpini) – To come

batt’d + uppayae = batt’duppayae – I may/might not have come

yAn batt'duppayae – I may/might not have come
I batt'duppaya – You may/might not have come
Aye/imbe batt'duppaye – He may/might not have come
Al/mOlu batt'duppayal– She may/might not have come
au/undu batt'duppand – It may/might not have come 
nama/enkulu batt'duppaya– We may/might not have come
Ir/nikulu batt'duppayar– You may/might not have come
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr batt'duppayer – They may/might not have come
undekulu/aikulu batt'duppaya– They may/might not have come


tU (tUpini) – To see

tUd + uppae = tUduppayae – I may/might not have seen

yAn tUduppayae – I may/might not have seen
I tUduppaya – You may/might not have seen
Aye/imbe tUduppaye – He may/might not have seen
Al/mOlu tUduppayal– She may/might not have seen
au/undu tUduppand – It may/might not have seen 
nama/enkulu tUduppaya– We may/might not have seen
Ir/nikulu tUduppayar– You may/might not have seen
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr tUduppayer – They may/might not have seen
undekulu/aikulu tUduppaya– They may/might not have seen

Tulu: Aye ninan tUduppaye
English: He may not have seen you
Kannada: avanu ninnannu nODirlikkilla

Tulu: akulu illaDe pOduppayer
English: They might not have gone home
Kannada: avaru manege hOgirlikkilla

Tulu: yAn elledulai I bElen mugit’duppayae
English: I might not have finished this work by tomorrow.
Kannada: nAnu nALeyoLage I kelasavannu mugisirlikkilla



More Example Sentences:

Tulu: Ayeg bus tatt’duppu
English: He may have missed the bus.
Kannada: avanige bus tappirabahudu

Tulu: pEr’n puchchae parduppu
English: The cat might have drunk the milk
Kannada: bekku hAlannu kuDidirabahudu

Tulu: enna kAr’n Er kaND’dupper?
English: Who might have stolen my car?
Kannada: nanna kArannu yAru kaddirabahudu?

Tulu: Aye ODe pOduppe?
English: Where might he have gone?
Kannada: avanu ellige hOgirabahudu?

Tulu: akulu ittae Mysore ett’dupper
English: They might have reached Mysore now
Kannada: avaru Iga Mysore talapirabahudu

Tulu: I             aklen tUduppa
English: You might have seen them
Kannada: nInu avarannu nODirabahudu

Tulu: Aleg madat’pOduppu
English: She might have forgotten
Kannada: avaLige maretu hOgirabahudu

Tulu: Ir eNDa sullu panduppar
English: You might have lied to me
Kannada: nIvu nannalli suLLu hELirabahudu

Tulu: rAme nanala batt’duppaye
English: Rama might not have come yet
Kannada: rAma innU bandiralikkilla

Tulu: I iDe muTa kEnduppaya
English: You might not have heard till now
Kannada: nInu illi varege kELiralikkilla

Tulu: nikulu satya panduppayar
English: You might not have said the truth
Kannada: nIvu satya hELirlikkilla

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

If you need more sentences translated in Tulu, please leave a comment. If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu J

See you next week!


solmelu!

Wednesday, 9 November 2016

Tulu Lesson 39: could + have + Past Participle

namaskAra! Welcome back!

Today we are going to learn how to translate “could + have + Past Participle” in Tulu. This form is used to express that something was possible in the past, or you had the ability to do something in the past, but that you didn't do it. The negative form is used to express that something wasn't possible in the past, even if you had wanted to do it.

Examples:

  1. You could have come with me.
  2. He could have done that work

In Tulu, we have the following structure for “could + have + Past Participle”

Past Gerund (Perfect) + suffix ‘oli’

learn tulu

bar (barpini) – To come

batt’d + oli = batt’doli / baidoli – Could have come

Normally this form is used with dative case.

Tulu: nikk ennoTTugu baidoli
English: You could have come with me
Kannada: ninage nannoTTige barabahudittu

malpu (malpuni) – To do

malt’d + oli = malt’doli – Could have done

Tulu: A bElen ayeg malt’doli
English: He could have done that work
Kannada: A kelasavannu avanige mADabahudittu

More examples:

paN (paNpini) – To tell/say

pand + oli = pantoli (d’ is pronounced as ‘t’, if it is a Class A verb) – Could have told

kEN (kEnuni) – To ask/hear/listen

kEnd + oli = kEndoli – Could have asked

tiN (tiNpini) – To eat

tind + oli = tintoli – Could have eaten

jeppu (jeppuni) – To sleep

jett’d + oli = jett’doli / jeidoli

gobbu (gobbuni) – To play

gobbud + oli = gobbudoli – Could have played

kor (korpini) – To give

kord + oli = kortoli – Could have given

uppu/ippu (uppuni/ippuni) – To be

dettonu (dettonuni) – To buy/purchase/take for oneself

dettond + oli – dettondoli – Could have bought (for oneself)

itt’d + oli = itt’doli – Could have been

A (Apini) – To become

Ad + oli = Atoli – Could have become

Negative forms:

Let us translate ‘could not’ in Tulu first.

Infinitive (second form) + third person neuter past tense of the verb ‘Apini’ (To become)

I could not come – enk barrae Ayiji

Now change ‘Ayiji’ to ‘Atand’ (Third person neuter conditional form of the verb ‘Apini’)

Infinitive (second form) + third person neuter conditional form of the verb ‘Apini’

enk barrae Atand – I couldn’t have come

More examples:

pO (pOpini) – To go

pOyerae Atand – Could not have gone

uN (uNpini) – To eat lunch/dinner

uNDrae Atand – Could not have eaten lunch/dinner

telipu (telipuni) – To smile/laugh

teliperae Atand – Could not have smiled

kalpu (kalpuni) – To learn

kalperae Atand – Could not have learned



Example Sentences:

Tulu: nikk parIksheD pAs Atoli, ANDa I prayatna battija
English: You could have passed the exam, but you didn’t try.
Kannada: ninage parIksheyalli pAs Agabahudittu, Adare nInu prayatnisalilla

Tulu: nikk enan leidoli, ANDa I lettija
English: You could have called me, but you didn’t call
Kannada: ninage nannannu karIbahudittu, Adare nInu karIlilla

Tulu: aleg Ayen madimae Atoli, ANDa aleg ishTa ittiji
English: She could have married him but she didn't want to.
Kannada: avaLige avanannu maduve Agabahudittu, Adare avaLige ishTa iralilla

Tulu: akleg avlu pokkaDae kulluna badal, enk sAya malt’doli
English: They could have helped me instead of just sitting there.
Kannada: avarige alli summane kuLitukoLLuva badalu, nanage sahAya mADabahudittu

Tulu: Ayeg vantae bEga baidoli
English: He could have come little earlier.
Kannada: avanige svalpa bEga barabahudittu

Tulu: namak aleDa pantoli
English: We could have told her
Kannada: namage avaLalli hELabahudittu

Tulu: kAs itt’d’NDa, onji car dettondoli
English: Could have been purchased a car if had money.
Kannada: duDDu irtiddare, ondu car tegedukoLLabahudittu

Tulu: enk oryeg malperae Atand
English: I could not have done it alone.
Kannada: nanage obbanige mADOke Agtiralilla

Tulu: enk neDd bEga barrae Atand, traffic jam itt’ND
English: I could not have arrived any earlier, there was a traffic jam.
Kannada: nanage idakkinta bEga barOke Agtiralilla,  traffic jam ittu

Tulu: Ir enan leid’NDala enk barrae Atand. enk hushAr ittiji
English: I couldn’t have come even if you had called me. I was not feeling well.
Kannada: nIvu nannannu karItiddrU nanage baroKe Agtiralilla. nanage hushAr  iralilla

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

If you need more sentences translated in Tulu, please leave a comment. If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu J

See you next week!


solmelu!

Thursday, 3 November 2016

Tulu Lesson 38: should/must + have + Past Participle

namaskAra! Welcome back!

Today we are going to learn how to translate “should/must + have + Past Participle” in Tulu. This form is used to express something that would have been done, but that we didn't do it, or advice about the past, or regretting what we did or didn't do. Please review the previous lesson Conditional Mood – “would/wouldhave” and Potential mood (must, should, need, can, may) before we proceed.

Look at the following examples:

You should have gone

He should have told me

She should have asked me

So you know how to translate ‘should’ or ‘must’ in Tulu. We have to add the suffix ‘oDu’ to the root verb.

Example:

pO (pOpini) – To go

pO + oDu = pOvoDu – should go
  
In Tulu, we have the following structure for “should/must + have + Past Participle”

Past Gerund (Perfect) + oDu

pOd + oDu = pOtoDu (d’ is pronounced as ‘t’, if it is a Class A verb) – should/must have gone

learn tulu


Tulu: I pOtoDu
English: You should have gone
Kannada: nInu hOgbEkittu

paN (paNpini) – To tell/say

pand + oDu = pantoDu (Class A verb) – should/must have told

Tulu: Aye eNDa pantoDu
English: He should have told me
Kannada: avanu nannalli hELbEkittu

kEN (kENuni) – To ask/hear/listen

kEnd + oDu = kEndoDu – should/must have asked

Tulu: Al eNDa kEndoDu
English: She should have asked me
Kannada: avaLu nannalli kELbEkittu

More examples:

malpu (malpuni) – To do/make

malt’d + oDu = malt’doDu – should/must have done

bar (barpini) – To come

batt’d + oDu = batt’doDu or baidoDu – should/must have come

leppu (leppuni) – To call

lett’d + oDu = lett’doDu or leidoDu – should/must have called

uN (uNpini) – To eat/have lunch or dinner

und + oDu = untoDu (Class A verb) – should/must have eaten lunch/dinner

telipu (telipuni) – To smile/laugh

telit’d + oDu = telit’doDu – should/must have smiled

uppu/ippu (uppuni/ippuni) – To be

itt’d + oDu = itt’doDu – should/must have been

A (Apini) – To become

Ad + oDu = AtoDu – should/must have become

Negative forms:

In Tulu we do not have negative forms for “should/must + have + Past Participle”, instead we use negative potential mood (should not/must not) and add third person neuter simple past tense of the auxiliary verb ‘uppuni’ (To be) at the end:

Negative potential mood + itt’ND

Example:

He should not have gone

Let’s translate “He should not go” to Tulu first.

Aye pOyeraeballi - He should not go (necessity or permission)
                       
                                OR

Aye pOpinaboDchi – He should not go (suggestion)

Now add “itt’ND” (Third person neuter simple past tense of the auxiliary verb ‘uppuni’) at the end.

Aye pOyeraeballi + itt’ND = Aye pOyeraeballitt’ND - He should not have gone (regretting)

Aye pOpinaboDchi + itt’ND = Aye pOpinaboDchitt’ND - He should not have gone (advice)

One more example:

You should not have eaten

I tiNyeraeballi – You should not eat (necessity)
I tiNpinaboDchi – You should not eat (suggestion)

I tiNyeraeballitt’ND - You should not have eaten (regretting)
I tiNpinaboDchitt’ND - You should not have eaten (advice)


Example Sentences:

Tulu: I enan leidoDu
English: You should have called me
Kannada: nInu nannannu karIbEkittu

Tulu: Ir ennoTTugu baidoDu
English: You should have come with me
Kannada: nIvu nannoTTige barbEkittu

Tulu: Ir ennoTTugu barraeballitt’ND
English: You should not have come with me
Kannada: nIvu nannoTTige barabAradittu

Tulu: yAn kANDae bEga lakk’doDu
English: I should have got up early in the morning.
Kannada: nAnu beLagge bEga eddELbEkittu

Tulu: Aye eNDa pantoDu
English: He should have told me
Kannada: avanu nanalli hELbEkittu

Tulu: nikulu kANDae muTa kAt’doDu
English: You should have waited until morning
Kannada: nIvu beLaggina varegU kAyabEkittu

Tulu: yAn AyeDa ancha pAteryeraeballitt’ND
English: I shouldn't have spoken to him like that.
Kannada: nAnu avanige hAge mAtADabAradittu

Tulu: yAn tulu kalt’doDu
English: I should have learned Tulu
Kannada: nAnu tuLu kalibEkittu

Tulu: Ir mUlu itt’doDu
English: You should have been here
Kannada: nIvu illi irabEkittu

Tulu: I eNDa sullu paNDraeballitt’ND
English: You shouldn’t have lied to me.
Kannada: nInu nannalli suLLu hELabAradittu

Tulu: Ar Doctor AtoDu
English: He should have become a Doctor
Kannada: avaru Doctor AgabEkittu

Tulu: Ir vantae bEga baidoDu
English: You should have come little earlier
Kannada: nIvu svalpa bEga barbEkittu



In English, we can also use ‘should have + + Past Participle’ to guess about events that may have happened.

Example: He should have reached Bangalore by now. (We are not certain whether he reached Bangalore or not)

In Tulu we have slightly different form to guess about events that may have happened. The auxiliary verb ‘uppu’ (uppuni – To be) is used with potential mood suffix ‘oDu’.


Past Gerund (Perfect) + uppu + oDu

pO (pOpini) – To go

pOd + upp + oDu = pOduppoDu – should have gone  (guessing)


bar (barpini) – To come

batt’d + upp + oDu = batt’duppoDu - should have come (guessing)
   

Examples:

Tulu: Aye ittae benglUr ett’duppoDu
English: He should have reached Bangalore by now.
Kannada: avanu Iga bengLuru talapirabEku

Tulu: akulu ini kANDae pOduppoDu
English: They should have gone this morning.
Kannada: avaru indu belagge hOgirabEku

Tulu: Ar It portugu jett’duppoDu
English: He/She should have slept by now.
Kannada: avaru ishTu hottige malagirabEku

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

If you need more sentences translated in Tulu, please leave a comment. If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu J

See you next week!


solmelu!