Wednesday 9 November 2016

Tulu Lesson 39: could + have + Past Participle

namaskAra! Welcome back!

Today we are going to learn how to translate “could + have + Past Participle” in Tulu. This form is used to express that something was possible in the past, or you had the ability to do something in the past, but that you didn't do it. The negative form is used to express that something wasn't possible in the past, even if you had wanted to do it.


  1. You could have come with me.
  2. He could have done that work

In Tulu, we have the following structure for “could + have + Past Participle”

Past Adverbial Participle (Perfect) + suffix ‘oli’

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bar (barpini) – To come

batt’d + oli = batt’doli / baidoli – Could have come

Normally this form is used with dative case.

Tulu: nikk ennoTTu baidoli
English: You could have come with me
Kannada: ninage nannoTTige barabahudittu

malpu (malpuni) – To do

malt’d + oli = malt’doli – Could have done

Tulu: A bElen ayeg malt’doli
English: He could have done that work
Kannada: A kelasavannu avanige mADabahudittu

More examples:

paN (paNpini) – To tell/say

pand + oli = pantoli (d’ is pronounced as ‘t’, if it is a Class A verb) – Could have told

kEN (kEnuni) – To ask/hear/listen

kEnd + oli = kEndoli – Could have asked

tiN (tiNpini) – To eat

tind + oli = tintoli – Could have eaten

jeppu (jeppuni) – To sleep

jett’d + oli = jett’doli / jeidoli

gobbu (gobbuni) – To play

gobbud + oli = gobbudoli – Could have played

kor (korpini) – To give

kord + oli = kortoli – Could have given

dettonu (dettonuni) – To buy/purchase/take for oneself

dettond + oli – dettondoli – Could have bought (for oneself)

uppu/ippu (uppuni/ippuni) – To be

itt’d + oli = itt’doli – Could have been

A (Apini) – To become

Ad + oli = Atoli – Could have become

Negative forms:

Let us translate ‘could not’ in Tulu first.

Infinitive + third person neuter past tense of the verb ‘Apini’ (To become)

I could not come – enk barrae Ayiji

Now change ‘Ayiji’ to ‘Atand’ (Third person neuter past subjunctive form of the verb ‘Apini’)

Atand = It would not happen / It would not have happened 

Infinitive + third person neuter past subjunctive form of the verb ‘Apini’

enk barrae Atand – I couldn’t have come

More examples:

pO (pOpini) – To go

pOyerae Atand – Could not have gone

uN (uNpini) – To eat lunch/dinner

uNDrae Atand – Could not have eaten lunch/dinner

telipu (telipuni) – To smile/laugh

teliperae Atand – Could not have smiled

kalpu (kalpuni) – To learn

kalperae Atand – Could not have learned

Example Sentences:

Tulu: nikk parIksheD pAs Atoli, ANDa I prayatna battija
English: You could have passed the exam, but you didn’t try.
Kannada: ninage parIksheyalli pAs Agabahudittu, Adare nInu prayatnisalilla

Tulu: nikk enan leidoli, ANDa I lettija
English: You could have called me, but you didn’t call
Kannada: ninage nannannu karIbahudittu, Adare nInu karIlilla

Tulu: aleg Ayen madimae Atoli, ANDa aleg ishTa ittiji
English: She could have married him but she didn't want to.
Kannada: avaLige avanannu maduve Agabahudittu, Adare avaLige ishTa iralilla

Tulu: akleg avlu pokkaDae kulluna badal, enk sAya malt’doli
English: They could have helped me instead of just sitting there.
Kannada: avarige alli summane kuLitukoLLuva badalu, nanage sahAya mADabahudittu

Tulu: Ayeg ontae bEga baidoli
English: He could have come little earlier.
Kannada: avanige svalpa bEga barabahudittu

Tulu: namak aleDa pantoli
English: We could have told her
Kannada: namage avaLalli hELabahudittu

Tulu: kAs itt’d’NDa, onji car dettondoli
English: Could have been purchased a car if had money.
Kannada: duDDu irtiddare, ondu car tegedukoLLabahudittu

Tulu: enk oryeg malperae Atand
English: I could not have done it alone.
Kannada: nanage obbanige mADOke Agtiralilla

Tulu: enk neDd bEga barrae Atand, traffic jam itt’ND
English: I could not have arrived any earlier, there was a traffic jam.
Kannada: nanage idakkinta bEga barOke Agtiralilla,  traffic jam ittu

Tulu: Ir enan leid’NDala enk barrae Atand. enk hushAr ittiji
English: I couldn’t have come even if you had called me. I was not feeling well.
Kannada: nIvu nannannu karItiddrU nanage baroKe Agtiralilla. nanage hushAr  iralilla

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If you need more sentences translated in Tulu, please leave a comment. If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu J

See you next week!



  1. Hi Kiran

    As always, your lessons are commendable and many of my friends are appreciative that such an effort is being made to make Tulu easy to learn. I have benefitted a lot from your lessons !

    I suggest 2 things for you next...

    1. Could you prepare a few exercises that people can work on and improve their understanding ? Doing so will make us "think" in Tulu, rather than think in English and translate to Tulu !
    2. Could you add a lesson on the differences between Common dialect and Brahmin dialect, if possible ? Many friends of mine use words and speak a bit differently, which I find a little hard to comprehend.

    Once again, great job ! This is textbook stuff !


    1. Raghunandan, Thank you for your suggestion. I will definitely prepare exercise or quiz shortly. However, I am not familiar with Brahmin dialect for that extent, I can just understand when someone speaks. So I cannot help you much with that. But I will try to add few words used in Brahmin dialect in the Vocabulary page.

  2. Please translate

    I could do
    I couldn't do