Wednesday, 29 June 2016

Tulu Lesson 23: Potential mood (must, should, need, can, may)

namaskAra! encha ullar?

Today we are going to learn Potential mood in Tulu. Potential mood is used to express ability, permission, obligation, expectation or necessity of an action. Examples: He should come, You may go, He can write etc.

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In Tulu, Potential mood is formed by using the following modal verbs or suffixes:

Suffix ‘oDu’
Modal verb ‘boDchi’
Suffix ‘oli’
Modal verb ‘balli’
Modal verbs ‘tIruni’ or ‘Apini’

Suffix ‘oDu’: To express obligation, expectation or necessity (must, should or need)

The suffix ‘oDu’ is derived from the modal verb ‘bODu’ which means ‘want’ or ‘need’.

Root verb + oDu

bar + oDu >>> baroDu – should come / must come / need come (Kannada: barabEku)
tiN + oDu >>> tiNoDu – should eat / must eat / need eat (Kannada: tinnabEku)
malpu + oDu >>> malpoDu - should do / must do / need do (mADabEku)
malpA + oDu >>> malpAvoDu - should have someone do / must have someone do / need have someone do (mADisabEku)
maltoNu + oDu >>> maltoNoDu - should do for oneself/ must do for oneself / need do for oneself (mADikoLLabEku)

Modal verb ‘boDchi’: To express suggestion or necessity (must not / should not / need not)

Modal verb ‘boDchi’ (don’t want or don’t need) is directly added to infinitives (first form)

Infinitive (first form) + boDchi

pOpini + boDchi >>> pOpinaboDchi - should not go / must not go / need not go (Kannada: hOguvudubEDa)
paNpini + boDchi >>> paNpinaboDchi – should not tell / must not tell / need not tell (Kannada: hELuvudubEDa)
malpuni + boDchi >>> malpunaboDchi - should not do / must not do / need not do (Kannada: mADuvudubEDa)

Suffix ‘oli’: To express permission (may or can)

Root verb + oli

bar + oli >>> baroli – may come / can come / permitted to come (Kannada: barabahudu)
rA + oli >>> rAvoli – may fly (Kannada: hArabahudu)
jeppu + oli >>> jeppoli – may sleep (Kannada: malagabahudu)
malpu + oli >>> malpoli – may do (Kannada: mADabahudu)

In English ‘may’ is also used to express probability. But in Tulu we have Uncertain Future Tense to express probability.

Example:

Tulu: Aye ellae baruve
English: He may come tomorrow (He will probably come tomorrow)
Kannada: avanu nALe barabahudu (avanu nALe bandAnu)

Modal verb ‘balli’: To express permission or necessity (may not or should not)

Modal verb ‘balli’ is directly added to infinitives (second form)

Infinitive (second form) + balli

pOyerae + balli >>> pOyeraeballi – may not go / not permitted to go / should not go (Kannada: hOgabAradu)
tiNDrae + balli >>> tiNDraeballi – may not eat (Kannada: tinnabAradu)
kullerae + balli >>> kulleraeballi – may not sit (Kannada: kUtukoLLabAradu)
malperae + balli >>> malperaeballi – may not do (Kannada: mADabAradu)

Modal verbs ‘tIruni’ or ‘Apini’: To express ability (can / could / be able / not be able)

The third person neuter present tense/future tense/past tense form of the verbs ‘tIruni’ (To be able) and ‘Apini’ (To become) are used with infinitives (second form).

Infinitive (second form) + tIruni/Apini

Present:

pOyerae + tIruNDu/ApuNDu  >>> pOyerae tIruNDu / pOyerae ApuNDu –  can go / be able to go (Kannada: hOgaballe / hOgalu sAdyavide)
malperae tIruNDu – can do (Kannda: mADaballe / mADalu sAdyavide)
rAyerae ApuNDu – can fly (Kannada: hAraballe / hAralu sAdyavide)
naDaperae tIruji – cannot walk (Kannada: naDeyalAre / naDeyalu sAdyavilla)
unterae Apuji – cannot stand (Kannada: nillalAre / nillalu sAdyavilla)

Future:

pOyerae tIru / pOyerae Avu – will be able to go / may be able to go (Kannada: hOgaballe / hOgalu sAdyavAdItu) 
tiNDrae Avand – will not be able to eat / may not be able to eat (Kannada: tinnalu Agadu / tinnalAre)
buliperae tIrand – will not be able to cry (Kannada: aLalAre / aLalu sAdyavilla)

Past:

pOyerae tIr’ND / pOyerae AND – could go / was able to go (Kannada: hOgalu sAdyavAytu)
naDaperae tIriji – could not walk (Kannada: naDeyalu Agalilla)
bareyerae Ayiji – could not write (Kannada: bareyalu Agalilla)


Lets us now make some sentences in potential mood.

Tulu: Ir khaNDita baroDu
English: You must come
Kannada: nIvu khaNDita barabEku

Tulu: I bEga jeppoDu
English: You should sleep early
Kannada: nInu bEga malagabEku

Tulu: Aye ellae baroDu
English: He should come tomorrow
Kannada: avanu nALe barabEku

Tulu: mAta janokulu oggaTTavoDu
English: All people need to unite.
Kannada: ella janagaLu oggaTTagabEku

Tulu: I ori Doctor AvoDu
English: You should become a Doctor
Kannada: nInobba Doctor AgabEku

Tulu: yAn pOvoDa?
English: Should I go?
Kannada: nAnu hOgabEka?

Tulu: yAn pOvoDa, boDcha?
English: Should I go or not?
Kannada: nAnu hOgabEka, bEDva?

Tulu: yAn dAda malpoDu?
English: What should I do?
Kannada: nAnu Enu mADabEku?

Tulu: suru nama illaDe pOvodu
English: We need to go home first
Kannada: modalu nAvu manege hOgabEku

Tulu: yAn ellae kANDae enma gaNTeg sAleD uppoDu, enk parIkhsae UNDu
English: I must be at school tomorrow at 8 a.m. I have an exam
Kannada: nAnu nALe beLigge eNTu gaNTege shAleyalli irabEku, nanage parIkhse ide

Tulu: akulu ellae barpinaboDchi
English: They should not come tomorrow 
Kannada: avaru nALe baruvudubEDa

Tulu: I ini sAleg pOpinaboDchi
English: You don’t have to go to school today
Kannada: nInu ivattu shAlege hOguvudubEDa

Tulu: Ar dAla bElae malpunaboDchi, yAn malpuvae
English: He/She need not do any work, I will do
Kannada: avaru EnU kelasa mADuvudubEDa, nAnu mADtEne

Tulu: yAn pOpinaboDcha?
English: Shouldn’t I go?
Kannada: nAnu hOguvudubEDva?

Tulu: nama laDai malpunaboDchi
English: We should not fight
Kannada: nAvu jagala ADuvudubEDa

Tulu: Aye ulai barpinaboDChi, pidai kApaD
English: He must not come inside, let him wait outside
Kannada: avanu oLage baruvudubEDa, horage kAyali

Tulu: I itte pOvoli
English: You may go now
Kannada: nInu Iga hOgabahudu

Tulu: Ir ini rajae dettonoli
English: You may take leave today
Kannada: nIvu ivattu raje tegedukoLLabahudu

Tulu: yAn ulai baroliye?
English: May I come in?
Kannada: nAnu oLage barabahuda?

Tulu: yAn ninnoTTugu baroliya?
English: May I come with you?
Kannada: nAnu ninna jate barabahuda?

Tulu: enk onji sAya malpoliya?
English: Can you do me a favor?
Kannada: nanage ondu sahAya maDabahuda?

Tulu: vArogora illaDe pOvoli
English: (One) Can go home once a week
Kannada: vArakkomme manege hOgabahudu

Tulu: Aye baryere balli
English: He may not (not allowed to) come
Kannada: avanu barabAradu

Tulu: Ir onas malpande pOyere balli
English: You may not leave without having the lunch/dinner
Kannada: nIvu UTa mADade hOgabAradu

Tulu: yAn ulai baryere balliya?
English: Am I not allowed to come in?
Kannada: nAnu oLage barabArada?

Tulu: nama sOpere balli, kuDora prayatna baroDu
English: We may not lose, we should try again
Kannada: nAvu sOlabAradu, innomme prayatnisabEku

Tulu: sullu paNDrae balli
English: (one) should not tell a lie
Kannada: suLLu hELabAradu

Tulu: buliperae balli
English: (One) should not cry
Kannada: aLabAradu

Tulu: enk nInderae ApuNDu
English: I can swim
Kannada: nAnu Ija balle

Tulu: Ayeg naDaperae tIruji
English: He can’t walk
Kannada: avanige naDeyOke Agalla

Tulu: nikk kudureDd bIsa baliperae tIruNDu
English: You are able to run faster than a horse.
Kannada: nInu kudureginta vEgavagi ODaballe

Tulu: enkleg ellae barrae Avand
English: We will not be able to come tomorrow / we may not be able to come tomorrow
Kannada: namage nALe baralu Agadu

Tulu: namak I bElae malperae tIruva?
English: Will we be able to do this work?
Kannada: namage I kelasa mADalu AdIta?

Tulu: akleg kODae pAterrae Ayiji
English: They could not speak yesterday
Kannada: avarige ninne mAtannADalu Agalilla

Tulu: nikk kANDae bEga lakkerae ANDa?
English: Were you able to get up early in the morning?
Kannada: ninage beLagge bEga ELOke Ayta?

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If you need more sentences translated in Tulu, please leave a comment. If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu J

See you next week!


solmelu!

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