Friday, 25 August 2017

Tulu Lesson 44: enku paNambUrugu pOyilekAND

namaskAra! Welcome back!

“enku paNambUrugu pOyilekAND” (It’s like Enku went to Panambur) is a Tulu saying. Enku is a foolish guy who once went to Panambur for no reason. When anyone is seen going to somewhere for no reason or anyone go to somewhere and return fruitlessly, then people say “enku paNambUrugu pOyilekaAND”.  There is a folk story behind this saying which I am going to tell you in Tulu today. I will not translate this story to English/Kannada as I think it will not help you to learn Tulu language. But I will explain the meaning of each word used in the story in English. Read the story completely first and try to understand it in Tulu. If you didn’t understand any of the words, then you can look at meaning in English. Here is the audio file you can listen while reading the story.


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kUlUruDu dumbori malla sirivante ittegae. Ayeg enku paNpi ori bEledAye itte. Aye bajI pedde. onji dina rAtrae danikulu enkunu lett’d “ellae I paNambUrugu ora pOdu baroDumbae” pand paNper. enku “Avu danikulae” pand paNpe. manadAni kANDae enku bEga lakk’d “dani kODae rAtrae paNambUrugu pOvoDund panter, daniTa paND’d bEga pidaDuvae” pand enn’d danina kOneg pOpe. ANDa dani nanala lakk’dittijer. “dani lakkunenge kAt’NDa portApuNDu, yAn ittene paNamUrugu pOdu bEga batt’NDa danik kushi Avu” pand enn’d paNambUrugu pidaDuve. naDattonde paNambUru muTTa pOpe enku. 

mulpa dani lakk’d enkunu nADuver. ANDa enku Olla tOjuje.  anchene madyAna ApuNDu. paNambUrugu pOtina enku pira barpe. apaga dani Ayen lett’d “indambae enku, I Olitta? ninan ini yAn paNambUrugu pOyerae pantini atambae?” pand kENuver. “yAn kANDene paNambUrugu pOdu battae danikulae” pand enku paNpe. danik sOdyaAND. “anda! I paNabUrugu pOdu dAda malta?” dani keNuver. “Ir dAda malpoDund pantijar danikulae. kAli pOdu bariyerae pantini. ancha yAn paNambUrugu pOdu battae” enku paNpe. unden kEND’d alpa ittina mAterla telipuver. 

ErANDala kAraNadAntae ODela pONDa att’Da pOyina bElae Avandae pira batt’NDa “enku paNambUrugu pOyileka AND” pand jana paNper. 

ಕೂಲೂರುಡು ದುಂಬೊರಿ ಮಲ್ಲ ಸಿರಿವಂತೆ ಇತ್ತೆಗೆ್. ಆಯೆಗ್ ಎಂಕು ಪಣ್ಪಿ ಒರಿ ಬೇಲೆದಾಯೆ ಇತ್ತೆ. ಆಯೆ ಬಜೀ ಪೆದ್ದೆ. ಒಂಜಿ ದಿನ ರಾತ್ರೆ್ ದನಿಕುಲು ಎಂಕುನು ಲೆತ್ತ್‌ದ್ "ಎಲ್ಲೆ್ ಈ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಒರ ಪೋದು ಬರೊಡುಂಬೆ್" ಪಂದ್ ಪಣ್ಪೆರ್. ಎಂಕು "ಆವು ದನಿಕುಲೆ್" ಪಂದ್ ಪಣ್ಪೆ. ಮನದಾನಿ ಕಾಂಡೆ್ ಎಂಕು ಬೇಗ ಲಕ್ಕ್‌ದ್ "ದನಿ ಕೋಡೆ್ ರಾತ್ರೆ್ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋವೊಡುಂದ್ ಪಂತೆರ್, ದನಿಟ ಪಂಡ್‌ದ್ ಬೇಗ ಪಿದಡುವೆ್" ಪಂದ್ ಎನ್ನ್‌ದ್ ದನಿನ ಕೋನೆಗ್ ಪೋಪೆ.ಆಂಡ ದನಿ ನನಲ ಲಕ್ಕ್‌ದಿತ್ತಿಜೆರ್. "ದನಿ ಲಕ್ಕುನೆಂಗೆ ಕಾತ್‌ಂಡ ಪೊರ್ತಾಪುಂಡು, ಯಾನ್ ಇತ್ತೆನೆ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋದು ಬೇಗ ಬತ್ತ್ಂಡ ದನಿಕ್ ಕುಶಿ ಆವು" ಪಂದ್ ಎನ್ನ್‌ದ್ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪಿದಡುವೆ. ನಡತ್ತೊಂದೆ ಪಣಂಬೂರು ಮುಟ್ಟ ಪೋಪೆ ಎಂಕು.

ಮುಲ್ಪ ದನಿ ಲಕ್ಕ್‌ದ್ ಎಂಕುನು ನಾಡುವೆರ್. ಆಂಡ ಎಂಕು ಓಲ್ಲಾ ತೋಜುಜೆ. ಅಂಚೆನೆ ಮದ್ಯಾನ ಆಪುಂಡು. ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋತಿನ ಎಂಕು ಪಿರ ಬರ್ಪೆ. ಅಪಗ ದನಿ ಆಯೆನ್ ಲೆತ್ತ್‌ದ್ "ಇಂದಂಬೆ್ ಎಂಕು ಈ ಓಲಿತ್ತ? ನಿನನ್ ಇನಿ ಯಾನ್ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋಯೆರೆ್ ಪಂತಿನಿ ಅತಂಬೆ್?" ಪಂದ್ ಕೇಣುವೆರ್. "ಯಾನ್ ಕಾಂಡೆನೆ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋದು ಬೈದೆ್ ದನಿಕುಲೆ್" ಪಂದ್ ಎಂಕು ಪಣ್ಪೆ. ದನಿಕ್ ಸೋದ್ಯಾಂಡ್. "ಅಂದ! ಈ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋದು ದಾದ ಮಲ್ತ?" ದನಿ ಕೇಣುವೆರ್. "ಈರ್ ದಾದ ಮಲ್ಪೊಡುಂದ್ ಪಂತಿಜರ್ ದನಿಕುಲೆ್, ಕಾಲಿ ಪೋದು ಬರಿಯೆರೆ್ ಪಂತಿನಿ. ಅಂಚ ಯಾನ್ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋದು ಬತ್ತೆ್" ಎಂಕು ಪಣ್ಪೆ. ಉಂದೆನ್ ಕೇಂಡ್‌ದ್ ಅಲ್ಪ ಇತ್ತಿನ ಮಾತೆರ್ಲ ತೆಲಿಪುವೆರ್.

ಏರಾಂಡಲ ಕಾರಣದಾಂತೆ್ ಓಡೆಲ ಪೋಂಡ ಅತ್ತ್‌ಡ ಪೋಯಿನ ಬೇಲೆ್ ಆವಂದೆ್ ಪಿರ ಬತ್ತ್‌ಂಡ "ಎಂಕು ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋಯಿಲೆಕ ಆಂಡ್" ಪಂದ್ ಜನ ಪಣ್ಪೆರ್.
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1. kUlUru = Kulur, A place in Mangalore; kUlUruDu = in Kulur (Locative case)
2. dumbu = Ago, Old days, long back
3. ori = a, a man; dumbu + ori = dumbori
4. malla = big
5. sirivante = Rich man; malla sirivante = very rich man
6. itte = He was; ‘gae’ =  Reporting Particle used at the end of a sentence which can be translated as “It is said that”.  
7. Aye = He; Ayeg = To him (Dative case)
8. paNpi = saying (Present Participle);  enku panpi jana = A person called (named) Enku
9. bEledAye = worker (Masculine); bElae = Work; bEleda + Aye = bEledAye
10. bajI = Mere, only
11. pedde = Foolish (Masculine); bajI pedde = very foolish guy
12. onji dina = one day
13. rAtrae = night; onji dina rAtrae = One night
14. dani = Lord, Master; danikulu = plural of ‘dani’, a respectful form used to refer to a master; danikulae = addressing a master (Vocative case)  
15. lett’d = having called (Past Gerund)
16. ellae = tomorrow
17. I = You
18. paNambUru = Panambur, a place in Mangalore; paNambUrugu = To Panambur (Dative case)
19. ora = once
20. pOdu = Having gone (Past Gerund)
21. baroDu = should come (Potential Mood); pOdu baroDu = should go and come; ‘mbae’ suffix used to address people (“mbae’’ is the male form and “de” is female form). It is extremely informal and can only be used to address close friends, siblings or younger people.
22. pand = that (Reporting Particle)
23. paNper = He/She tells; paNpe = He tells
24. Avu = Okay
25 manadAni = Next day
26 KANDae = Morning
27. bEga = soon
28. lakk’d = Having Got up, (Past Gerund)
29. kODae = Yesterday
30. pOvoDu = should go, (Potential Mood); pOvoDu+pand=pOvoDund
31. panter = He/She has told
32. daniTa= To/with Master (Communicative case)
33. paND’d = Having said (Past Gerund)
34. pidaDuvae = I will depart
35. enn’d = having thought (Past Gerund)
36. danina = Master’s (Genitive case)
37. kOnae = Room; kOneg = To the room
38. pOpe= He goes
39. ANDa = But
40. nanala=yet
41. lakk’dittijer = He/She had not got up
42. lakkunenge=till getting up (Postposition)
43. kAt’NDa = If waited (Subjunctive Mood)
44. portu=time or late; ApuNDu=It will become; portu+ ApuNDu=portApuNDu=It will be late
45. yAn = I
46. ittae = now; ittene=now only (Emphatic Particles)
47. batt’NDa = If came (Subjunctive Mood)
48. danik To Master (Dative case)
49. kushi = Happy
50. Avu = It may become; danik kushi Avu= Master may feel happy 
51. pidaDuve = He departs
52. naDattondu= walking (Present Gerund); naDattonde = walking only (Emphatic Particles)
53. paNambUru muTTa= till Panambur (Postposition)
54. mulpa= Here
55. nAduver = He/She searches
56. Olla = Anywhere
57. tOjuje = He is not visible
58. ancha = Thus, like that; anchene =  like that only (Emphatic Particles)
59. madyAna = afternoon; madyAna ApuNDu = It will be afternoon
60. pOtina = gone (Past Perfect Participle); pOtina enku = Enku who had gone
61. pira = back; pira barpe = He returns
62. apaga = Then
63. indambae = Hey; ‘indambae’ used to address people (‘indambae’ is the male form and ‘indade’ is the female form; ‘indaya’ is gender-less form which can be used for both male or female). It is extremely informal and can only be used to address close friends, siblings or younger people. (‘indeye’ is the respectful form used to address elders)
64. Olu = Where; Olitta = Where were you?
65. ninan = you (Accusative case)
66. ini = Today
67. pOyerae = To go (Second Infinitive)
68. pantini = have told (Fist Infinitive)
69. att = No; ata = Isn’t it/right?; ata+mbae=atambae
70. kENuver = He/She asks
71. battae = I came
72. sOdya = surprise/shock; sOdya+AND =sOdyAND=Got surprised.  
73. and = Yes; anda = is it?
74. dAda= what?
75. malta = You did
76. malpoDu = should do (Potential Mood); malpoDu+pand=malpoDund
77. pantijar = You have not told
78. kAli = Only
79. bariyerae = To come, (Second Infinitive)
80. unden = It (Accusative case)
81. kEnd = Having heard (Past Gerund)
82. alpa = There
83. ittina = was (Simple Past Participle)
84. mAterla = all
85. telipuver = They laugh
86. ErANDala = Anyone
87. kAraNa = reason; dAntae=without; kAraNadAntae= without reason
88. ODela = Anywhere
89. pONDa = If went (Subjunctive Mood)
90. att’Da = Or
91. pOyina = went (Simple Past Participle)
92. bElae = work, job
93. Avandae = having not become, having not completed (Negative Gerund)
94. pOyileka = like went (Postposition)
95. AND = It became, It’s done
96. jana = people

If you find difficulties in understanding any of the words used in the story, please leave a comment. If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu :)

Bye!

Tuesday, 21 February 2017

Tulu Lesson 43: Particles

namaskAra! Welcome back!

Particles are uninflected words that don’t exactly belong to another class of words (such as adverbs, etc.) but serve a function within the sentence.

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‘e’ or ‘ne’

These are emphatic particles used to emphasize a word. This can be translated as “only”, “just”, “merely”, “indeed” etc.

‘ne’ is used after a final vowel ‘a’, ‘e’, 'ae'.
‘e’ is used after a final vowel ‘i’, ‘u’ or a final consonant (or half-u).

Examples:
mara – marane
rAme – rAmene
appae – appene
kAr – kAre
pakki – pakkiye
onji - onje
guru – guruve
uNDu - uNDe
Ayeg – Ayege
barpe - barpene

Tulu: mara bUruNDu
English: Tree will fall down.
Kannada: mara bILuttade

Tulu: marane bUruNDu
English: Tree only will fall down (Here it emphasizes the tree)
Kannada: marave bILuttade

Tulu: mara bUruNDe
English: Tree will fall down indeed (Here it emphasizes the action of falling)
Kannada: mara bidde bILuttade

Tulu: yAn onje dOsae tiNDini
English: I ate only one Dosa (It emphasizes the insufficiency of a single Dosa – I ate only one Dosa, not much)
Kannada: nAnu onde dOse tindiddu

Tulu: yAne onji dOsae tiNDini
English: I only ate one Dosa (I am the one who ate Dosa, not anyone else.)
Kannada: nAne ondu dOse tindiddu

Tulu: Aye ellae barpene
English: He will come tomorrow anyhow (It emphasizes the action of coming – I am sure he will come tomorrow)
Kannada: avanu nAle bande bartAne

Tulu: Aye ellene barpe
English: He will come tomorrow only (It emphasizes the time of coming ‘tomorow’ – He will come tomorrow not other day)
Kannada: avanu nALeye bartAne

Tulu: Ayene ellae barpe
English: He himself will come tomorrow (He only will come tomorrow not anyone else)

Tulu: Aye ninane lettini
English: He called you only (not others)
Kannada: avanu ninnanne karediddu

Tulu: Ir ellae baroDe
English: You should come tomorrow in any case
Kannada: nIvu nALe barle bEku

Tulu: yAn jeidine (jeidini + e) ijji
English: I did not sleep at all
Kannada: nAnu malage illa

Tulu: Aye barpuje
English: He does not come
Kannada: avanu baruvudilla

Tulu: Aye barpine (barpini + e) ijji
English: He does not come at all
Kannada: avanu baruvude illa

Tulu: Al eNDa pAterujal
English: She does not speak with me
Kannada: avaLu nannalli mAtADuvudilla

Tulu: Al eNDa pAterune ijji
English: She does not speak with me at all
Kannada: avaLu nannalli mAtADuvude illa

Interrogative particles ‘a’, ‘na’, (‘e’, ‘ne’)

‘These are interrogative particles used in simple questions. ‘e’/‘ne’ are very polite and used to give respect when speaking to elders/strangers.
‘na’ and ‘ne’ are used after a final vowel ‘a’, ‘e’, 'ae'.
‘a’ and ‘e’ are used after a final vowel ‘i’, ‘u’ or a final consonant (or half-u).

 Examples:

mara – marana? / marane? - Is it tree?
tUka – tUkana? / tUkane? – Let us see?
Aye – Ayena? / Ayene? – Is it him?
barpe – barpena? / barpene? – Will he come?
mOnae – mOnena? / mOnene? – Is it face?
sari – sariya? / sariye? – Is it correct?
ijji – ijja? / ijje? – No? / Is not there?
pOyi – pOya? / pOye? – Let us go?
guru – guruva? / guruve? – Is it Guru?
uNDu – uNDa? / uNDe? – Is it there?
baroDu – baroDa? / baroDe? – Shall I come?
kaNN – kaNNa? / kaNNe? – Is it eye?
barpar – barpara? / barpare? – Will you come?

Tulu: nama movie’g pOya?
English: Let us go to movie?
Kannada: nAvu movie’ge hOgONva?

Tulu: undu ninna illa?
English: idu ninna maneya?
Kannada: Is this your house?

Tulu: I Epa barpa? iniya, ellena?
English: When will you come, today or tomorrow?
Kannada: nInu yAvAga bartIya? ivatta, nALeya?

Tulu: enkonji upakAra malpuvare?
English: Can you please do me a favor?
Kannada: nanagondu sahAya mADuttIra?

Tulu: yAn irenoTTugu baroDe?
English: Shall I come with you?
Kannada: nAnu nimmoTTige barla?

Tulu: barsa baronduNDe ijje?
English: Is it raining or not?
Kannada: maLe bartideya ilva?

Tulu: aklen leppoDa boDcha?
English: Shall I call them or not?
Kannada: avarannu karIla bEDva?

Tulu: undu eDDena atta?
English: Is this good or not?
Kannada: idu OLLeda alva?

Tulu: anda atta?
English: Yes or no?
Kannada: hauda alva?

Tulu: undu satyana sulla?
English: Is this true or a lie?
Kannada: idu satyava suLLa?

Also, these particles are used to change interrogative pronouns into indefinite pronouns and exclamatory expressions.

Examples:

Er – Era – Someone / Wonder who!
Erna – Ernana – Someone’s / Wonder whose!
enchina – enchinana – Something / Wonder what!
dAda – dAdana – Something / Wonder what!
dAne – dAnna (dAne + na) – Wonder what!
vou – vovva - Something / Wonder which one!
Et – Eta – Wonder how much!
Epa – Epana – Sometime / Wonder when!
Olu – Ola – Somewhere / Wonder where!
ODe – Odena – To somewhere / Wonder whither!
onchi – onchiya – To somewhere / Wonder whither!


Tulu:
Person A: Era ninan lettonduller
Person B: Er?
Person A: Era! enk gottuji

English:
Person A: Somebody is calling you
Person B: Who?
Person A: (Wonder who) I don’t know!

Kannada:
Person A: yAro ninnannu karItiddAre
Person B: yAru?
Person A: yAro! nanage gottilla

Tulu:
Person A: Ar Epa barper?
Person B: Epana!

English:
Person A: When he/she will come?
Person B: Wonder when! (I don’t know)

Kannada:
Person A: avaru yAvAga bartAre?
Person B: yAvAglo!

Tulu: Ayeg dAdana At’ND
English: Something has happened to him
Kannada: avanige Eno Agide

Tulu: akulu mUle Ola uppoDu
English: They should be here (only) somewhere.
Kannada: avaru ille ello irbEku

Tulu: mokulu ODena pOyer
English: They went somewhere
Kannada: avaru elligo hOdaru

‘dAnna’ is used to express doubt and commonly placed after the word with the interrogative particles.

Tulu: Aye illaD ullena dAnna!
English: Maybe, he is at home. I am not sure!
Kannada: avanu maneyalli iddAno Eno!

Tulu: aleg dAda ANDa dAnna!
English: I am not sure what happened to her!
Kannada: avaLige Enu Ayto Eno!

‘la’

This can be used as a simple adverb in English “too/also” or an emphatic particle which can be translated as “even” or a conjunction “and”.

Examples:

Tulu: appaela magalla batter
English: Mother and daughter came
Kannada: tAyiyU magaLU bandaru

Tulu: nAyila puchchaela gobbondulla
English: Dog and Cat are playing
Kannada: nAyi mattu bekku ADuttive

Tulu: enk nAyilena pODigae ApuNDu
English: I am afraid of dogs.
Kannada: nanage nAyigaLa bhaya Agtade

Tulu: enkla nAyilena pODigae ApuNDu
English: I am also afraid of dogs.
Kannada: nanagU nAyigaLa bhaya Agtade

Tulu: enk nAyilenala pODigae ApuNDu
English: I am also afraid of dogs.
Kannada: nanage nAyigaLidU bhaya Agtade

The English usage of “also/too” is unclear. The sentence ‘I am also afraid of dogs’ could mean “In addition to some other person, I am afraid of dogs” or “I am afraid of dogs in addition to other things”. However, the Tulu sentence is clear; 'la' succeeds the word that it modifies.

Tulu: yAnla niklenoTTugu barpae
English: I will come with you too.
Kannada: nAnU nimma jote bartEne

Tulu: yAn dAda paNpae aven malpuvaela
English: I also do what I say
Kannada: nAnu Enu hELtEne adannu mADtEne kUDa

Tulu: yAn onji gaNTaela jeidijae
English: I have not slept for even an hour.
Kannada: nAnu ondu gaNTeyU kUDa malagilla

Tulu: Ar enan lettijer
English: He/She didn’t call me
Kannada: avaru nannannu karililla

Tulu: Arla enan lettijer
English: He/She also did not call me
Kannada: avarU nannannu karIlilla

Tulu: Ar enanla lettijer
English: He/She did not call me too
Kannada: avaru nannannU karIlilla

Tulu: Ar enan lettinla (lettini+la) ijji
English: He/She didn’t even call me
Kannada: aavaru nannannu karilU illa

Tulu: yAn ayen lett’NDala battije
English: Even though I called him, he did not come
Kannada: nAnu avanannu karedarU avanu baralilla

Tulu: akulu battijerDala Ir baroDe
English: Even though they do not come, you should come in any case
Kannada: avaru baradiddarU nIvu barale bEku  

‘la’ is also used to change interrogative pronouns into indefinite pronouns

Examples:

Er – Erla – anyone
Erna – Ernala – anyone’s
enchina – enchinala – anything
dAda – dAla – anything
vou – voula – any of them
Et – Etla – Any quantity / Sufficient
Epa – Epala – Any time / Always
Olu – Olla – Anywhere
ODe – Odela – To anywhere
onchi – onchila – To anywhere


Tulu: illaD Erla ullera?
English: Is there anyone home?
Kannada: maneyalli yArAdarU iddAra?

Tulu: EreDala pAteroDchi
English: Don’t speak with anyone
Kannada: yArallU mAtADabEDa

Tulu: enk dAla boDchi
English: I don’t need anything
Kannada: nanage EnU bEDa

Tulu: namak pariyerae Etla nIr uNDu
English: We have sufficient water to drink
Kannada: namage kuDiyOke sAkashTu nIru ide.

Tulu: sUrye Epala mUDAyiD mUDuve
English: The sun always rises in the east
Kannada: sUrya yAvAgalU pUrvadalli mUDuttAne

Tulu: Aye Olla tOjuje
English: He is not visible anywhere
Kannada: avanu ellU kANuttilla

Tulu: Ir ODela pOvoDchi
English: You don’t go anywhere
Kannada: nIvu elligU hOgabEDi

‘gae’

This is a reporting particle which can be translated as “It is said”. When reporting something said by others, we normally use ‘gae’ at the end of sentences. Using ‘gae’ at the end of a sentence shows that the sentence you said was not yours, but it was said by someone else or you got the news from unknown source which cannot be believed true completely.

For example if some people said, "There is a bomb in the bus" (Tulu: bass’D bomb uNDu) and you want to report that, you can say:

Tulu: bass’D bomb uNDugae
English: It is said that there is a bomb in the bus
Kannada: bassalli bomb ideyante

Let us see more examples:

Tulu: janokulu paNper Aye ori kalvegae
English: People say that he is a thief.
Kannada: janaru hELtAre avanobba kaLLanante

Tulu: Aye nikk kAtondullegae
English: He (or someone else) said that he is waiting for you.
Kannada: avanu ninage kAytA iddAne ante

Tulu: akulu ellae barpergae
English: They (or someone else) said that they will come tomorrow
Kannada: avaru nAle bartAre ante

Tulu: ini I nela ochchoDugae
English: It’s said that you should wipe the floor today
Kannada: ivattu nInu nela oresabEkante


‘pand’ / ‘ind

These are not actually particles but past gerunds of verbs ‘paNpini’ (To tell/say) and ‘iNpini’ (To tell/say).

paND’d – pand = Having said
iND’d – ind = Having said

Please review the lesson Tulu Lesson 18: Uses of Gerunds(Verbal Adverbs) to know how these gerunds are used.

Apart from this, ‘pand’ / ‘ind’ can also be used as reporting particle in indirect speech which can be translated as “that” or “said that”. Let us see an example:

Direct speech:
English: He said, "I will not come."
Tulu: Aye paNDe, “yAn barpujae”
Kannada: avanu hELida, “nAnu baralla”

Indirect speech:
English: He said that he would not come.
Tulu: Aye barpuje pand paNDe
Kannada: avanu baralla anta hELida

In spoken Tulu, ‘pand’ / ‘ind’ further shortened into ‘nd’

Tulu: akulu ellae barper’nd panter
English: They (have) said that they would come tomorrow
Kannada: avaru nALe bartAre anta hELiddAre

Tulu: Al illaDe pOvondullal’nd paNDal
English: She said she was going to home
Kannada: avaLu manage hOgtiddALe anta hELidaLu

Tulu: Aye dAda malpoDu’nd kENDe
English: He asked what he should do
Kannada: avanu Enu mADabEku anta kELida

Tulu: yAn Ayeg ellae baroDu’nd paNDae
English: I told him that he should come tomorrow
Kannada: nAnu avanige nALe barabEku anta hELide

Tulu: enk dAda malpoDu’nd gottAvondijji
English: I don’t know (that) what should I do
Kannada: nanage Enu mADbEku anta gottAgtilla

Tulu: yAn nentae I sullu paNpini’nd
English: I thought that you were telling a lie
Kannada: nAnu andukoNDe nInu suLLu hELtiddIya anta

Tulu: yAn, I barpuja’nd enniyae
English: I thought that you don’t come
Kannada: nAnu, nInu baralla anta andukoNDe

‘paNDa’

‘paNDa’ is the subjunctive form of the verb ‘paNpini’ (To tell/say).

paND + Da – paNDa= If said 

Example:

Tulu: Aye enk paNDa yAn ireg paNpae
English: If he tells me, I will tell you
Kannada: avanu nanage hELidare nAnu nimage hELtEne

This word can also be used as a particle which can be translated as ‘means’/ ‘that means’

Tulu: ancha paNDa
English: That means
Kannada: hAgandre

Tulu: mUlu sharat paNDa Er?
English: Who is Sharth here?
Kannada: illi sharat andre yAru?

Tulu: I paNDa enk ishTa
English: I like you (Lit. You mean like for me)
Kannada: nInu andre nanage ishTa

Tulu: tuluTu ____ paNDa dAda?
English: What does ____ mean in Tulu?
Kannada: tuLuvalli ____ andre Enu?

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Bye!

Thursday, 5 January 2017

Tulu Lesson 42: Family Relationships in Tulu

namaskAra! Welcome back!

Today let us learn some names of family relationships in Tulu. 



Here is a list of relationships and their corresponding words in Tulu.

Tulu
English
Kannada
appae / amma
Mother / Mummy
tAyi / amma
amme / poppa
Father / Daddy
tande / appa
appae-amme
Mother and Father / Parents
tande-tAyi
mage
Son
maga
magal
Daughter
magaLu
bAlae
Child/Kid/Baby
magu
bAlelu / jOkulu
Children
makkaLu
appae-magal
Mother and Daughter
tAyi-magaLu
amme-mage
Father and Son
tande-maga
appae-jOkulu
Mother and Children
tAyi-makkaLu
palaye / aNNe
Elder brother
aNNa
paldi/pali/akka
Elder sister
akka
megye
Younger brother
tamma
megdi / tangaDi
Younger sister
tangi
megye-palayallu
Brothers
aNNa-tammandiru
megdi-paliyallu
Sisters
akka-tangiyandiru
tage-tangaDi
Brother and Sister
aNNa-tangi
ajje
Grand Father
ajja
ajji
Grand Mother
ajji
pijje
Great grand father
muttajja
pijji
Great grand mother
muttajji
pulli
Grand child (Grand son or Grand daughter)
mommagu
talli
Great grand child
mari mommagu
kaNDane /kaNDani
Husband
gaNDa
boDedi
Wife
heNDati
kaNDani-boDedi
Husband and Wife
gaNDa-heDNati
mAma

(kaNDane att’NDa boDedina ammer / ammerna megdi att’NDa palina kaNDane)
Father in law / Father’s sister’s husband
mAva
tammalae / mAma

(appena megye att’NDa palaye)
Maternal Uncle (Mother’s brother)
sOdara mAva
mAmi

(kaNDane att’NDa boDedina appae / ammerna megdi att’NDa pali / appena megye att’NDa palayena boDedi)
Mother in law / Paternal Aunt (Father’s sister or Mother’s brother’s wife)
atte / sOdaratte
marmaye

(magalna kaNDane)
Son in law
aLiya
arvatte

(megdi att’NDa palina mage)
Nephew (Sister’s son)
sOdaraLiya
marmal

(magena boDedi / megdi att’NDa palina magal)
Daughter in law / Niece (Sister’s daughter)
sose
mAmu-marmaye
Father in law and Son in law
mAva-aLiya
mAmi-marmal
Mother in law and Daughter in law
atte-sose
tammalae-arvatte
Uncle (Mother’s brother) and Nephew (Sister’s son)
sOdaramAva-sOdaraLiya
periyappae / mallamma / doDDamma

(appena pali / ammerna palayena boDedi)
Mother’s elder sister / Father’s elder brother’s wife
doDDamma
periyamme / doDDappa

(ammerna palaye / appena palina kaNDane)
Father’s elder brother / Mother’s elder sister’s husband
doDDappa
tiddappae / elyamma / chikkamma

(appena megdi / ammerna megyena boDedi)
Mother’s younger sister / Father’s younger brother’s wife
chikkamma
tiddamme / chikkappa

(ammerna megye / appena megdina kaNDane)
Father’s younger brother / Mother’s younger sisters husband
chikkappa
bhAve

(palina kaNDane / kaNDanna palaye)
Brother in law (Elder sister’s husband / husband’s elder brother)
bhAva
attai / attigae / bhAbhi

(palayena boDedi / kaNDanna pali)
Sister in law (Elder brother’s wife / husband’s elder sister)
attige
maitine

(boDedina megye att’NDa palaye / kaNDanna meggye / megdina kaNDane / tammale att’NDa mAmina mage)
Brother in law (Wife’s brother / Husband’s brother / younger sister’s husband) / Cousin (Mother's brother's son and Father's sister's son)
maiduna
maitidi

(boDedina megdi att’NDa pali / kaNDanna megdi / megyena boDedi / tammalae att’NDa mAmina magal
Sister in law (Wife’s sister / Husband’s sister / younger brother’s wife) / Cousin (Mother's brother's daughter and Father's sister's daughter)
nAdini

The plural forms of these relation names can be made by adding the suffix ‘allu’ (or aDlu).

Examples:

mage – son
magallu – sons

palaye – Elder brother
palayallu – Elder brothers

megdi – Younger sister
megdyallu – Younger sisters

boDedi – Wife
boDedyallu - Wives

marmal – Daughter in law
marmalallu – Daughters in law

However, the word ‘bAlae’ is considered as a Neuter noun. So, its plural form is ‘bAlelu’ and not ‘bAleyallu’.

Also, to give respect to a single person, we can add the plural suffix ‘er’.

Examples:

amme – ammer

ajje – ajjer

palaye – palayer

tammale – tammaler

bhAve – bhAver



Other words related to family/relationships:

Tulu
English
Kannada
sammandiker
Relatives
sambandhikaru
kuTuma
Family
kuTumba
binner
Guests
neNTaru
ishTer
Friends
geLeyaru
podu
Relationship of connection by marriage
vaivAhika sambandha
podder
Parents in law / relatives by marriage
bIgaru
dOsti
Friend / friendship
geLeya / geLetana
madimae
Marriage/Wedding
maduve
madimal
Bride
madumagaLu
madimaye
Groom
madumaga
nishchaya
Engagement
nishchittArtha
banjinAl
Pregnant woman
garbhiNi
pedmedi
A lying-in woman
bANanti
puru bAlae
Infant (newborn child)
chikka kUsu
amar
Twins
avaLi
bAykae
Baby shower ceremony
sImanta
ill
Home/house
mane
illokkel
House-warming ceremony
griha pravEsha
appae-ill / tamerill
Parental house of a girl
tAyimane / tavarumane
malla mage/magal
Elder son/daughter
hiriya maga/magaLu
elya mage/magal
Younger son/daughter
kiriya maga/magaLu
kaDira mage/magal
The Eldest or first born son/daughter
modala maga/magaLu
naDuvane
The second among three brothers / Intermediate person

madhyadavaNu
naDuvandi
The second among three sisters / Intermediate person
madhyadavaLu

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Click here to go to Tulu Exercises page.


Bye!