Saturday, 7 May 2016

Tulu Lesson 15: Negative and Interrogative in Present Perfect Tense

Hello All! Welcome back!

How was the last lesson? I hope you had no problem with that. Please comment, if you need any help. Today we are going to learn negative and interrogative form of sentences in Present Perfect Tense.

You already know to make verb stems in Present Perfect Tense. If not, please read the lesson 14 again. To make it negative just change the personal endings.

Personal endings for negative form of sentences in Present Perfect Tense are same as Simple Past.

Singular
Plural
Pronoun
Ending
Example: pO
Pronoun
Ending
Example: pO
First Person
yAn
ijae
pOtijae
nama/enkulu
ija
pOtija
Second Person
I
ija
pOtija
nikulu/Ir
ijar
pOtijar
Third Person
Masc.
Aye/imbe
ije
pOtije
akulu/Ar/mokulu/mEr
ijer
pOtijer
Fem.
Al/mOlu
ijal
pOtijal
Neut.
au/undu
iji
pOtiji
aikulu/undekulu
ija
pOtija

Note: You may see some people use ‘iji’ ending for first person singular, ‘yAn pOtiji’ instead of ‘yAn pOtijae’ though grammatically it is wrong.

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Let us see some examples:

malpu (malpuni) – To do/make

Present Perfect verb stem + personal ending

 malt’d + ijae >>> malt’dijae – I have not done (Kannada: nAnu mADilla)

yAn malt’dijae – I have not done
I malt’dija – You have not done
Aye/imbe malt’dije – He has not done
Al/mOlu malt’dijal – She has not done
au/undu malt’diji – It has not done
nama/enkulu malt’dija – We have not done
Ir/nikulu malt’dijar – You have not done
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr malt’dijer – They have not done
undekulu/aikulu malt’dija – They have not done

kalpu (kalpuni) – To learn

kalt’d + ijae >>> kalt’dijae – I have not leaned (Kannada: nAnu kalitilla)

yAn kalt’dijae – I have not learned
I kalt’dija – You have not learned
Aye/imbe kalt’dije – He has not learned
Al/mOlu kalt’dijal – She has not learned
au/undu kalt’diji – It has not learned
nama/enkulu kalt’dija – We have not learned
Ir/nikulu kalt’dijar – You have not learned
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kalt’dijer – They have not learned
undekulu/aikulu kalt’dija – They have not learned

kEN (kENuni) -  To hear/ask

kEND’d >>> kEnd

kEnd + ijae >>> kEndijae – I have not heard/asked (Kannada: nAnu kELilla)

yAn kEndijae – I have not asked/heard
I kEndija – You have not asked/heard
Aye/imbe kEndije – He has not asked/heard
Al/mOlu kEndijal – She has not asked/heard
au/undu kEndiji – It has not asked/heard
nama/enkulu kEndija – We have not asked/heard
Ir/nikulu kEndijar – You have not asked/heard
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kEndijer – They have not asked/heard
undekulu/aikulu kEndija – They have not asked/heard

tiN (tiNpini) – To eat

tiND’d >>> tind

tind + ijae >>> tintijae – I have not eaten (Kannada: nAnu tindilla)

yAn tintijae – I have not eaten
I tintija – You have not eaten
Aye/imbe tintije – He has not eaten
Al/mOlu tintijal – She has not eaten
au/undu tintiji – It has not eaten
nama/enkulu tintija – We have not eaten
Ir/nikulu tintijar – You have not eaten
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr tintijer – They have not eaten
undekulu/aikulu tintija – They have not eaten

bUr (bUruni)  – To fall

bUrd + ijae >>> bUrdijae – I have not fallen (Kannada: nAnu biddilla)

yAn bUrdijae – I have not fallen
I bUrdija – You have not fallen
Aye/imbe bUrdije – He has not fallen
Al/mOlu bUrdijal – She has not fallen
au/undu bUrdiji – It has not fallen
nama/enkulu bUrdija – We have not fallen
Ir/nikulu bUrdijar – You have not fallen
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr bUrdijer – They have not fallen
undekulu/aikulu bUrdija – They have not fallen

tU (tUpini) – To see

tUd + ijae >>> tUtijae – I have not seen (Kannada: nAnu nODilla)

yAn tUtijae – I have not seen
I tUtija – You have not seen
Aye/imbe tUtije – He has not seen
Al/mOlu tUtijal – She has not seen
au/undu tUtiji – It has not seen
nama/enkulu tUtija – We have not seen
Ir/nikulu tUtijar – You have not seen
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr tUtijer – They have not seen
undekulu/aikulu tUtija – They have not seen

bar (barpini) - To come

batt’d + ijae >>> batt’dijae >>> baidijae – I have not come (Kannada: nAnu bandilla)

yAn baidijae – I have not come
I baidija – You have not come
Aye/imbe baidije – He has not come
Al/mOlu baidijal – She has not come
au/undu baidiji – It has not come
nama/enkulu baidija – We have not come
Ir/nikulu baidijar – You have not come
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr baidijer – They have not come
undekulu/aikulu baidija – They have not come

leppu (leppuni) – To call

lett’d + ijae >>> lett’dijae >>> leidijae – I have not called (Kannada: nAnu karedilla)

yAn leidijae – I have not called
I leidija – You have not called
Aye/imbe leidije – He has not called
Al/mOlu leidijal – She has not called
au/undu leidiji – It has not called
nama/enkulu leidija – We have not called
Ir/nikulu leidijar – You have not called
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr leidijer – They have not called
undekulu/aikulu leidija – They have not called

deppu (deppuni) – To remove/open

dett’d + ijae >>> dett’dijae >>> deidijae – I have not removed/taken (Kannada: nAnu tegedilla)

yAn deidijae – I have not removed/taken
I deidija – You have not removed/taken
Aye/imbe deidije – He has not removed/taken
Al/mOlu deidijal – She has not removed/taken
au/undu deidiji – It has not removed/taken
nama/enkulu deidija – We have not removed/taken
Ir/nikulu deidijar – You have not removed/taken
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr deidijer – They have not removed/taken
undekulu/aikulu deidija – They have not removed/taken

dettoNu (dettoNuni) - To take for oneself/To accept

dettoND’d >>> dettond

dettond + ijae >>> dettondijae – I have not taken for myself (Kannada: nAnu tegedukoNDilla)

yAn dettondijae – I have not taken (for myself)
I dettondija – You have not taken (for myself)
Aye/imbe dettondije – He has not taken (for myself)
Al/mOlu dettondijal – She has not taken (for myself)
au/undu dettondiji – It has not taken (for myself)
nama/enkulu dettondija – We have not taken (for myself)
Ir/nikulu dettondijar – You have not taken (for myself)
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr dettondijer – They have not taken (for myself)
undekulu/aikulu dettondija – They have not taken (for myself)


Example sentences:

Tulu: yAn orala bombaig pOtijae
English: I have never been to Mumbai
Kannada: nAnu ommeyU mumbaige hOgilla

Tulu: Aye nanala untije
English: He has not had lunch yet
Kannada: avanu innU UTa mADilla

Tulu: Al baidijal
English: She has not come
Kannada: avaLu bandilla

Tulu: I eNDa dAla pantija
English: You have not told me anything
Kannada: nInu nanalli EnU hELilla

Tulu: au Eregla dAla upadra malt'diji
English: It has not done any trouble to anyone
Kannada: adu yArigU EnU tondare koTTillla

Tulu: nama dAla tappu malt'dija
English: We have not done anything wrong
Kannada: nAvu EnU tappu mADilla

Tulu: nikulu enan leidijar
English: You have not called me
Kannada: nIvu nannannu karedilla

Tulu: akulu nanala tulu kalt'dijer
English: They have not learned Tulu yet
Kannada: avaru innU tuLu kalitilla

Tulu: I jOkulu ini sAleg pOtija
English: These children have not gone to school today
Kannada: I makkaLu ivattu shAlege hOgilla

We already know how to make the interrogative form of sentences. We have to add  ‘a’ or ‘na’ at the end. When speaking with elders/strangers with respect, you can add ‘e’ or ‘ne’ instead of ‘a’ or ‘na’ at the end.

Tulu: I untana?/ I onas malt'dana?
English: Have you had lunch/dinner yet?
Kannada: nInu  UTa mADiddIya?

Tulu: Ir untare?/ Ir onas malt'dare? (giving respect to the listner)
English: Have you had lunch/dinner yet?
Kannada: nIvu  UTa mADiddIra?

Tulu: nanala untijana?
English: Haven't you had lunch yet?
Kannada: nInu innU UTa mADilva?

Tulu: yAn niNDa suruve pantijena?
English: Haven't I told you before?
Kannada: nAnu ninage modale hELilva?

Tulu: Aye nikk tikk'dena?
English: Has he met you?
Kannada: avanu ninage sikkiddAna?

Tulu: Aye ireg tikk'dene? (giving respect to the listner)
English: Has he met you?
Kannada: avanu nimage sikkiddAna?

Tulu: Al padya pantala?
English: Has she sung a song?
Kannada: avaLu hADu hADiddALa?

Tulu: bas nanala baidija?
English: Has bus not come yet?
Kannada: bassu innU bandilva?

Tulu: nikulu parIkshae baretara?
English: Have you (pluaral) written exam?
Kannada: nIvu parIkshae barediddIra?

Tulu: akulu suden kaDat’dera?
English: Have they crossed the river?
Kannada: avaru nadi dATiddAra?

Tulu: bAle jeid’NDa?
English: Has the kid slept.
Kannada: magu malagideya?

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

That’s all for the day! If you need more sentences translated to Tulu, please leave a comment. If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who want to learn Tulu.

See you next week!

solmelu! 

1 comment:

  1. How about having a simple table, you have covered it 100% but one place would help and rules (example with kannada in below form)

    Simple Continuous perfect prefect-continuous
    Past
    Present pO+pa+ae pO+Undu+Ullae
    Future

    ReplyDelete