Friday, 29 April 2016

Tulu Lesson 14: Present Perfect Tense

Hello everyone, welcome back!

Today we are going to learn a new tense in Tulu. This tense is Present Perfect Tense.

Look at this sentence:

I saw him

We already know how to say this in Tulu: yAn Ayen tUyae

Today, we will learn this:

I have seen him.

Do you remember how we made a verb conjuation in simple past tense? In Present Perfect Tense we follow the same rule with a bit difference.

We have to just add ‘d’ sound (‘d’ will be changed to ‘t’, if it is a Class A verb) to the verb stem of simple past tense to get the verb stem of Present Perfect Tense.

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As we learned before, there are three different forms of verb conjugation in Simple Past tense.

1. Verbs ending in ‘pu’

To form verb stem of Simple Past Tense, replace ‘pu’ with ‘t’.

malpu (malpuni) – To do/make

malpu >>> malt

Simple Past verb stem + d = Present Perfect verb stem

malt + d = malt’d

Now add the personal endings to Present Perfect verb stem.

malt’d + ae = malt’dae – I have done (Kannada: mADiddEne)

kalpu (kalpuni) – To learn

kalpu >>> kalt

kalt + d + ae = kalt’dae – I have learned (Kannada: kaltiddEne)

2. Verbs ending in ‘N’

To form verb stem of Simple Past Tense, add ‘D’ sound to root verb.

kEN (kENuni) -  To hear/ask

kEN + D >>> kEND

Simple Past verb stem + d = Present Perfect verb stem

kEND + d = kEND’d

Now add the personal endings to Present Perfect verb stem.

kEND’d + ae = kEND’dae (In common Tulu, it’s pronounced ‘kEndae’) – I have heard/asked (Kannada: kELiddEne)

tiN (tiNpini) – To eat (Class A verb)

tiN + D >>> tiND

tiND + d + ae = tiND’dae (In common Tulu, it’s pronounced ‘tintae’) -  I have eaten (Kannada: tindiddEne)

3. All other verbs.

To form verb stem of Simple Past Tense, add ‘i’ sound to root verb.

bUr (bUruni – To fall)

bUr + i >>> bUri

Simple Past verb stem + d = Present Perfect verb stem

When adding ‘d’ sound, the final vowel ‘i’ is removed. So we can add ‘d’ sound to the root verb directly.

bUr(i) + d = bUrd

Now add the personal endings to Present Perfect verb stem.

bUrd + ae = bUrdae – I have fallen (Kannada: biddiddEne)

tU (tUpini) – To see (Class A verb)

Simple Past verb stem + d = Present Perfect verb stem

tU + d = tUd

Now add the personal endings to Present Perfect verb stem.

tUd + ae = tUtae (‘d’ is pronounced as ‘t’, if it is a Class A verb) – I have seen (Kannada: nODiddEne)


Personal endings in Present Perfect Tense are same as Simple Past Tense.


Singular
Plural
Pronoun
Ending
Example: pO
Pronoun
Ending
Example: pO
First Person
yAn
ae
pOtae
nama/enkulu
a
pOta
Second Person
I
a
pOta
nikulu/Ir
ar
pOtar
Third Person
Masc.
Aye/imbe
e
pOte
akulu/Ar/mokulu/mEr
er
pOter
Fem.
Al/mOlu
al
pOtal
Neut.
au/undu
ND
pOt’ND
aikulu/undekulu
a
pOta



The Present Perfect Tense may be confusing for new learners as it is pronounced differently from its original form depending on the dialects.

There are two major changes in the pronounciatiuon:

1. batt’dae >>> baidae

Look at the verb ‘bar’ (barpini – To come). The simple past verb stem of ‘bar’ is ‘batt’ and so Present Perfect verb stem is “batt’d

batt’dae – I have come (Kannada: bandiddEne)

But in common Tulu it is pronounced as ‘baidae

Some of the verbs which are conjugated same as ‘baidae’ in Present Perfect Tense are:

leppu (leppuni) – To call

leppu >>> lett >>> lett’d

lett’dae >>> leidae – I have called (Kannada: karediddEne)


jeppu (jeppuni) – To sleep

jeppu >>> jett >>> jett’d

jett’dae >>> jeidae – I have slept (Kannada: malagiddEne)


jappu (jappuni) – To get down/descend

jappu >>> jatt >>> jatt’d

jatt’dae >>> jaidae – I have descended (Kannada: iLididdEne)


deppu (deppuni) – To remove/open

deppu >>> dett >>> dett’d

dett’dae >>> deidae – I have removed (Kannada: tegediddEne)


sai (saipini) – To die

sai >>> sait >>> sait’d

sait’dae >>> saidae – I have died  (Kannada: sattiddEne)


2. kEND’dae >> kEndae

Look at the verb ‘kEN’ (kENunu – To hear/ask). The simple past verb stem of ‘kEN’ is ‘kEND’ and so Present Perfect verb stem is “kEND’d

kEND’dae – I have heard/asked (Kannada: kELiddEne)

But in common Tulu it is pronounced as ‘kEndae

All the verbs ending in ‘N’ sound, including Reflexive Verbs are conjugated same as ‘kEndae’ in Present Perfect Tense.

dettoNu (dettoNuni) - To take for oneself/To accept

dettoNu >>> dettoND >>> dettoND’d

dettoND’dae >>> dettondae – I have taken (Kannada: tegedukoNDiddEne)


paN (paNpini) – To tell/say

paN >>> paND >>> paND’d

paND’dae >>> pantae – I have told (Kannada: hELiddEne)

Here ‘d’ sound changes to ‘t’ since it is a Class A verb.


uN (uNpini) – To eat (meals/rice)

uN >>> uND >>> uND’d

uND’dae >>> untae – I have eaten (Kannada: uNDiddEne)


Alright! Now let us look at some more verbs:

tU (tUpini) – To see (Kannada: nODu)

yAn tUtae – I have seen
I tUta – You have seen
Aye/imbe tUte – He have seen
Al/mOlu tUtal – She have seen
au/undu tUt’ND – It have seen
nama/enkulu tUta – We have seen
Ir/nikulu tUtar – You have seen
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr tUter – They have seen
undekulu/aikulu tUta – They have seen

buDu (buDpini) – To leave (Kannada: biDu)

yAn buDtae – I have left
I buDta – You have left
Aye/imbe buDte – He has left
Al/mOlu buDtal – She has left
au/undu buDt’ND – It has left
nama/enkulu buDta – We have left
Ir/nikulu buDtar – You have left
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr buDter – They have left
undekulu/aikulu buDta – They have left

kEN (kENuni) To hear/listen/ask

yAn kEndae – I have asked
I kEnda – You have asked
Aye/imbe kEnde – He has asked
Al/mOlu kEndal – She has asked
au/undu kEnd’ND – It has asked
nama/enkulu kEnda – We have asked
Ir/nikulu kEndar – You have asked
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kEnder – They have asked
undekulu/aikulu kEnda – They have asked

A (Apini) – To become/happen

yAn Atae – I have become
I Ata – You have become
Aye/imbe Ate – He has become
Al/mOlu Atal – She has become
au/undu At’ND – It has become /It has happened/It’s been done
nama/enkulu Ata – We have become
Ir/nikulu Atar – You have become
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr Ater – They have become
undekulu/aikulu Ata – They have become

bar (barpini) – To come

yAn baidae – I have come
I baida – You have come
Aye/imbe baide – He has come
Al/mOlu baidal – She has come
au/undu baid’ND – It has come
nama/enkulu baida – We have come
Ir/nikulu baidar – You have come
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr baider – They have come
undekulu/aikulu baida – They have come

kana (kanapini) – To bring

This verb is derived from compound verb ‘kondu bar’. So, it is conjugated as ‘bar’

yAn kanaidae – I have brought
I kanaida – You have brought
Aye/imbe kanaide – He has brought
Al/mOlu kanaidal – She has brought
au/undu kanaid’ND – It has brought
nama/enkulu kanaida – We have brought
Ir/nikulu kanaidar – You have brought
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kanaider – They have brought
undekulu/aikulu kanaida – They have brought

kono (konopini) – To take away

This verb is derived from compound verb ‘kondu pO’. So, it is conjugated as ‘pO’

yAn konotae – I have taken it away
I konota – You have taken it away
Aye/imbe konote – He has taken it away
Al/mOlu konotal – She has taken it away
au/undu konot’ND – It has taken it away
nama/enkulu konota – We have taken it away
Ir/nikulu konotar – You have taken it away
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr konoter – They have taken it away
undekulu/aikulu konota – They have taken it away

kApu (kApuni) – To wait

yAn kAt’dae – I have waited
I kAt’da – You have waited
Aye/imbe kAt’de – He has waited
Al/mOlu kAt’dal – She has waited
au/undu kAt’d’ND – It has waited
nama/enkulu kAt’da – We have waited
Ir/nikulu kAt’dar – You have waited
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kAt’der – They have waited
undekulu/aikulu kAt’da – They have waited

kalpu (kalpuni) – To learn

yAn kalt’dae – I have learned
I kalt’da – You have learned
Aye/imbe kalt’de – He has learned
Al/mOlu kalt’dal – She has learned
au/undu kalt’d’ND – It has learned
nama/enkulu kalt’da – We have learned
Ir/nikulu kalt’dar – You have learned
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kalt’der – They have learned
undekulu/aikulu kalt’da – They have learned


Example sentences:

Tulu: yAn A bUkunu raDD sarti Odudae
English: I have read that book two times
Kannada: nAnu A pustakavannu eraDu sala OdiddEne

Tulu: bAlae jeid’ND
English: The kid has slept
Kannada: magu malagide

Tulu: yAn A picture mUji sarti tUtae
English: I have seen that movie three times
Kannada: nAnu A cinema mUru sala nODiddEne

Tulu: I tOra Ata
English: you have become fat
Kannada: nInu dappagAgiddIya

Tulu: akulu illaDe pOter
English: They have gone home
Kannada: avaru manege hOgiddAre

Tulu: mara buled'ND
English: The tree has been grown
Kannada: mara beLedide

Tulu: kukku parnd'd'ND
English: mango has ripened
Kannada: mAvu haNNAgide

Tulu: pU arald'ND
English: The flower has bloomed
Kannada: hUvu araLide

Tulu: binner baider
English: guests have come
Kannada: neNTaru bandiddAre

Tulu: yAn untae / yAn oNas malt'dae
English: I have had lunch
Kannada: nAnu UTa mADiddene

Tulu: yAn tulu kalt'dae
English: I have learned Tulu
Kannada: nAnu tuLu kaltiddEne

Tulu: akulu onji posa car dettonder
English: they have bought a new car
Kannada: avaru ondu hosa car takoNDiddAre

Tulu: akulu mUji puchcheda kinni kanaider
English: They have brought three kittens
Kannada: avaru mUru bekkina mari tandiddAre

Tulu: yAn maisUr'g vora pOte
English: I have been to Mysore once
Kannada: nAnu maisUrige omme hOgiddEne

Tulu: enkulu illada eduru raDD tArae neDta
English: we have planted two coconut trees in front of the house
Kannada: nAvu mane eduru eraDu tengina mara neTTiddEve

Tulu: I enan madat'da
English: nInu nannannu maratiddIya
Kannada: you have forgotten me

Tulu: yAn nikk onji e-mail kaDapuD'dae
English: I have sent an e-mail to you
Kannada: nAnu ninage ondu e-mail kaLuhisiddEne

Tulu: Aye  maronu kaDpAde
English: He has made someone cut the tree
Kannada: avanu maravannu kaDisiddAne

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

If you have any questions, feel free to comment. See you next week!


solmelu!

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