Friday, 27 May 2016

Tulu Lesson 18: Uses of Gerunds (Verbal Adverbs)

namaskAra! Welcome back!

Today we are going to learn something new, i.e.Verbals. Verbals are forms of verb which is used as another part of speech like nouns, adjectives or adverbs in a sentence.

Following are the types of verbals in Tulu:

  • Gerunds or verbal adverbs (Present, Past Perfect and Negative)
  • Participles or verbal adjectives (Present, Simple Past, Past Perfect and Negative)
  • Infinitives (Present, Simple Past, Past Perfect and Negative)
 Let us look into only gerunds today. Next week we will cover participles/verbal adjectives and infinitives.

Gerunds are mainly used as adverbs in Tulu. There are three forms; Present, Past Perfect and Negative.

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Present gerund:  suffix ‘ondu’

Examples:

maltondu – doing (Kannada: mADtA)
pOvondu – going ( Kannada: hOgtA)
ittondu – being (Kannada: iruttA)
tiNondu – eating (Kannada: tinnuttA)

We have already learned this form in Present Continuous tense. This form is used to express the mode how an action is done.

Tulu: Aye baltondu batte
English: He came running
Kannada: avanu ODtA banda

Tulu: akulu pAterondu bElae maltonduller
English: They are speaking and working.
Kannada: avaru mAtannADtA kelasa mADtiddAre

Tulu: Al teltondu pOyal
English: avaLu nagtA hOdaLu
Kannada: She went smiling

Tulu: sudae paratondu kaDal sEruNDu
English: River flows and joins the sea. 
Kannada: nadi haritA samudra sErtade.

Tulu: mange maroDdu maroku lAgyondu pONDu.
English: The monkey went jumping from tree to tree.
Kannada: manga maradinda marakke jigitA hOytu.  

Past gerund (Perfect): suffix ‘d’

Examples:

malt’d – having done (Kannada: mADi)
itt’d – having been (Kannada: iddu)
pOdu – having gone (Kannada: hOgi)
tiND’d or tind – having eaten (Kannada: tindu) 

Note: “tiND’d” also pronounced as “tind” in common Tulu and so all verbs ending in ‘N’.  E.g. kEND’d >> kEnd, uND’d >> undu, paND’d >> pand

We have already learned this form in Present Perfect tense. This form is used to express actions in sequence.

Tulu: Aye uND’d (undu) jette
English: He had lunch/dinner and slept. (Having had dinner/lunch, he slept)
Kannada: avanu UTa mADi malagida

Tulu: Aye kANdae enma gaNTeg lakk’d, mId, chA pard sAleg pOye
English: He got up at 8 O’clock, took bath, had tea and went to school. 
Kannda: avanu beLagge eNTu gaNTege eddu, snAna mADi, chaha kuDidu shAlege hOda

Tulu: yAn AyeDa paND’d (pand) barpae
English: I will tell him and come (Having told him, I will come)
Kannada: nAnu avanige hELi bartEne

Tulu: enkulu pOdu barpa
English: We will go and come. (Having gone, we will come)
Kannada: nAvu hOgi bartEve

Tulu: Ayena bElae mugit’d illaDe pOye
English: Having finished his work, he went home.
Kannada: avana kelasa mugisi manage hOda

To express the reason or cause of actions:

Tulu: barsa batt’d yAn chaNDi Ayae
English: It rained and so I got wet.
Kannada: maLe bandu odde Ade

Tulu: balt’d balt’d enk bachch’ND
English: I am tired from running
Kannada: ODi ODi nanage sustAytu

Tulu: ninan tUdu enk kushi AND
English: I am happy seeing you
Kannada: ninnanu nODi kushi Aytu

To express time:

Tulu: Aye pOdu onji varsha AND
English: It’s been one year since he went
Kannada: avanu hOgi ondu vasha Aytu.

Tulu: ninan tUdu mast samaya AND
English: It’s been a long time since I saw you
Kannada: ninnannu nODi tumbA samayavAytu


Negative gerund: suffix ‘andae’

Examples:

malpu + andae >>> malpandae - having not done (Kannada: mADade)
pOvandae – having not gone (Kannada: hOgade)
tiNandae – having not eaten (Kannada: tinnade)
uppandae – having not been (Kannada: irade)
ijjandae (or dAntae) – having not been (Kannada: illade)

Generally this form gives the meaning of ‘without’.

Tulu: satya paNandae bEtae sAdi ijji
English: Without telling the truth there is no other way
Kannada: satya hELade bEre dAri illa

Tulu: I dAntae (ijjandae) yAn bad’kayae
Englsih: Without you I can’t live
Kannada: nInu illade nAnu badukenu

Tulu: Aye eNDa paNandae pOye
English: He went without informing (telling) me
Kannda: avanu nanage hELade hOda

Tulu: Aye uNandae jette
English: Without having lunch/dinner, he slept
Kannada: avanu UTa mADade malagida

To express the reason or cause of actions:

Tulu: imbe Odandae parIksheD fail Aye
English: He failed in the exam by not reading
Kannada: ivanu Odade parIksheyalli fail Ada

Tulu: yAn teriyandae tappu maltae
English: I did a mistake unknowingly
Kannada: nAnu tiLiyade tappu mADide

To express time:

Tulu: akulu barandae onji varsha AND
English: It’s been one year since they came
Kannada: avaru barade ondu varsha Aytu

Tulu: ninan tUvande mast samaya AND
English: It’s been a long time since I saw you
Kannada: ninnannu nODade tumbA samayavAytu

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If you need more sentences translated in Tulu, please leave a comment. If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu J

See you next week!


solmelu!

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