Saturday, 2 April 2016

Tulu Lesson 11: Causative Verbs

namaskAra!

Hello everyone,

Today we are going to learn causative verbs. Causative verbs express the idea of somebody causing something to happen or causing another person to do something. Let us learn how to make the causative verbs.

To make causative forms for Class A verbs, add ‘pA’ suffix and for Class B verbs, add ‘A’ suffix to root verb. This gives us a whole new set of verbs that are easy to memorize since they are made using the verbs we are already familiar with.

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Class A:

tiN (tiNpini) – To eat (Kannada: tinnuvudu)
tiNpA (tiNpAvuni) – cause to eat/ To make someone to eat (Kannada: tinnisuvudu)

bar (barpini) – To come (Kannada: baruvudu)
barpA (barpAvuni) – cause to come (Kannada: barisuvudu)

buDu (buDpini) – To leave (Kannada: biDuvudu)
buDpA (buDpAvuni) – cause to leave/To draw(a picture)/To dilate (Kannada: biDisu)

tU (tUpini) – To see (Kannada: nODuuvudu)
tUpA (tUpAvuni) – To show (Kannada: nODisuvudu/tOrisuvudu)

Class B:

malpu (malpuni) – To do/make (Kannada: mADuvudu)
malpA (malpAvuni) – cause to do/make (Kannada: mADisuvudu)

gend (genduni) – To win (Kannada: gelluvudu)
gendA (gendAvuni) – cause to win/make someone to win

kullu (kulluvunu) – To sit (Kannada: kuLitukoLLuvudu)
kullA (kullAvuni) – cause to sit (Kannada: kUrisuvudu)

tOju (tOjuni) – To be seen (Kannada: tOruvudu)
tOjA (tOjAvuni) – To show (Kannada: tOrisuvudu)

kalpu (kalpuni) – To learn (Kannada: kaliyuvudu)
kalpA (kalpAvuni) – To teach (Kannada: kalisuvudu)

Sometimes ‘Du’ or ‘DA’ suffixes are used for some verbs. However, these verbs are very few.

leppu (leppuni) – To call (Kannada: kareyuvudu)
leppuDA (leppuDAvuni) – cause to call (Kannada: karesuvudu)

naDapu (naDapuni) – To walk (Kannada: naDeyuvudu)
naDapA (naDapAvuni) or naDapuDA (naDapuDAvuni)  –cause to walk (Kannada: naDesuvudu)

jeppu (jeppuni) – To sleep (Kannada: malaguvudu)
jeppA (jeppAvuni) or jeppuDA (jeppuDAvuni)  –cause to sleep (Kannada: malagisuvudu)

jappu (jappuni) – To get down/decend (Kannada: iLiyuvudu)
jappA (jappAvuni) or jappuDA (jappuDAvuni)  –cause to get down (Kannada: iLisuvudu)

kaDapu (kaDapuni) – To cross (Kannada: dATuvudu)
kaDapA (kaDapAvuni) – cause to cross (Kannada: dATisuvudu)
kaDapuDu (kaDapuDuni) – To send (Kannada: kaLuhisuvudu)
kaDapuDA (kaDapuDAvuni) – To make someone to send (Kannada: kaLuhisuvante mADu)

Causative verbs can be conjugated in the same way like Class B verbs. However, these verbs does not have uncertain future tense in positive form (except ‘kaDapuDu’ – To send), but have it in negative form.

Simple Present/Future Positive:

Causative verb + uv + personal ending

yAn malpAvae – I make someone to do/I will make someone to do 
I malpAva– You make someone to do/You will make someone to do 
Aye/imbe malpAve – He makes someone to do/He will make someone to do 
Al/mOlu malpAval– She makes someone to do/She will make someone to do 
au/undu malpAvuNDu – It makes someone to do/It will make someone to do 
nama/enkulu malpAva – We make someone to do/We will make someone to do 
Ir/nikulu malpAvar– You make someone to do/You will make someone to do 
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr malpAver– They make someone to do/They will make someone to do 
undekulu/aikulu malpAva – They make someone to do/They will make someone to do 

Simple Present/Future Negative:

Causative verb + personal ending

yAn malpAvujae – I do not make someone to do/I will not make someone to do 
I malpAvuja– You dp not make someone to do/You will not make someone to do 
Aye/imbe malpAvuje – He does not make someone to do/He will not make someone to do 
Al/mOlu malpAvujal– She does not make someone to do/She will not make someone to do 
au/undu malpAvuji – It does not make someone to do/It will not make someone to do 
nama/enkulu malpAvuja – We do not make someone to do/We will not make someone to do 
Ir/nikulu malpAvujar– You do not make someone to do/You will not make someone to do 
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr malpAvujer– They do not make someone to do/They will not make someone to do 
undekulu/aikulu malpAvuja – They do not make someone to do/They will not make someone to do 

Uncertain Future Positive:

Causative verb + personal ending

yAn kaDapuDae – I will probably send 
I kaDapuDa– You will probably send 
Aye/imbe kaDapuDe – He will probably send 
Al/mOlu kaDapuDal – She will probably send 
au/undu kaDapuDu– It will probably send 
nama/enkulu kaDapuDa – We make will probably send 
Ir/nikulu kaDapuDar – You will probably send 
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kaDapuDer – They will probably send 
undekulu/aikulu kaDapuDa – They will probably send 

Uncertain Future Negative:

Causative verb + personal ending

yAn tojapAvayae  – I will probably not show 
I tojapAvaya – You will probably not show 
Aye/imbe tojapAvaye – He will probably not show 
Al/mOlu tojapAvayal – She will probably not show 
au/undu tojapAvand – It will probably not show 
nama/enkulu tojapAvaya – We will probably not show 
Ir/nikulu tojapAvayar – You will probably not show 
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr tojapAvayer – They will probably not show 
undekulu/aikulu tojapAvaya – They will probably not show 

Simple Past Positive:

Causative verb + i + personal ending

yAn tiNpAyae  – I made someone to eat 
I tiNpAya– You made someone to eat 
Aye/imbe tiNpAye– He made someone to eat 
Al/mOlu tiNpAyal– She made someone to eat 
au/undu tiNpAND– It made someone to eat 
nama/enkulu tiNpAya– We made someone to eat 
Ir/nikulu tiNpAyar– You made someone to eat 
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr tiNpAyer– They made someone to eat 
undekulu/aikulu tiNpAya – They made someone to eat 

Simple Past Negative:

yAn leppuDAyijae  – I didn’t make someone to call
I leppuDAyija– You didn’t make someone to call
Aye/imbe leppuDAyije – He didn’t make someone to call
Al/mOlu leppuDAyijal – She didn’t make someone to call
au/undu leppuDAyiji – It didn’t make someone to call
nama/enkulu leppuDAyija – We didn’t make someone to call
Ir/nikulu leppuDAyijar – You didn’t make someone to call
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr leppuDAyijer – They didn’t make someone to call
undekulu/aikulu leppuDAyija – They didn’t make someone to call

Examples:
Tulu: appae bAlen jeppDAyal
English: Mother made the child to sleep.
Kannada: tAyi maguvannu malagisidaLu

Tulu: Aye mAterenla telipAve 
English: He makes everyone to laugh
Kannada: avanu ellarannu nagistAne

Tulu: yAn nikk teripAve
English: I will let you know
Kannada: nAnu ninage tiListEne

Tulu: Ar bAlen bulipAyer
English: He/She made the child to cry.
Kannada: avaru maguvannu aLisidaru

Tulu: yAn nikleg tulu kalpAvae
English: I will teach you Tulu
Kannada: naNu nimage tulu kalisuttEne

Tulu: jOkulen sAleg kaDupuDiyae
English: I sent the children to the school
Kannada: makkaLannu shAlege kaLuhiside

Tulu: yAn AyeDd satya paNpAvae
English: I will make him to say the truth
Kannada: nAnu avaninda satya hElistEne




Some of the intransitive verbs can be changed to transitive verbs by adding ‘pu’ suffix, and then it can be changed to causative verb by adding ‘A’ suffix. Intransitive verb is a verb that does not need a direct object to complete its meaning. Transitive verb is a verb that needs a direct object to complete its meaning.

kAyi – (kAyuni) – To get heated (Kannada: kAyu)
kAypu (kAypuni) - To make hot/fry (Kannada: kAyisu)

poliy (poliyuni) – To get split/cut (Kannada: muriyu)
polipu (polipuni) – To split/cut (Kannada: muriyu)

uriy (uriyuni) – To burn (Kannada: uriyu)
uripu (uripuni) – To make it burn/To blow (Kannada: urisu/Udu)

oriy (oriyuni) – To remain (Kannada: uLiyu)
oripu (oripuni) – To save/cause to remain (Kannada: uLisu)

mugiy (mugiyuni) – To end/cease (Kannada: mugiyu)
mugipu (mugipuni) – To finish/complete (Kannada: mugisu)

maDiy (maDiyuni) – To get folded (Kannada: maDachikoLLu)
maDipu (maDipuni) – To fold (Kannada: maDachu)

pariy (pariyuni) – To get torn (Kannada: hariyu)
paripu (paripuni) – To tear (Kannada: hariyu)

dariy (dariyuni) – To be broken/burst (Kannada: oDeyu)
darpu (darpuni) – To break/burst (Kannada: oDeyu)

puDA (puDAvuni) – To be broken/be blasted (Kannada: oDeyu)
puDapu (puDapuni) – To break/blast (Kannada: oDeyu)

kaDiy (kaDiyuni) – To be cut/broken (Kannada: muriyu/tuNDAgu)
kaDpu (kaDpuni) – To cut/break (Kannada: kaDiyu/tuNDu mADu)

These verbs can be changed to causative form by adding ‘A’ suffix.

kAypA - cause to hot/fry (Kannada: kAyisu)
polipA – cause to split/cut (Kannada: murisu)
uripA – cause to blow (Kannada: Udisu)
oripA – To make someone to save/cause to remain (Kannada: uLisu)
mugipA – cause to finish/complete (Kannada: mugisu)
maDipA– cause to fold (Kannada: maDachisu(?))
paripA – cause to tear (Kannada: harisu)
darpA – cause to break/burst (Kannada: oDesu)
puDapA – cause to break/blast (Kannada: oDesu)
kaDpA – cause to cut/break (Kannada: kaDisu/tuNDu mADisu)

The following examples will differentiate between 3 verb forms:

Intransitive:
Tulu: lEs mugiND
English: Ceremony ended
Kannada: samArambha mugiyitu

Tulu: picture bEga mugiyuNDu
English: The movie will be ended soon
Kannada: cinema bEga mugiyuttade

Tulu: ball kaDiND
English: The rope broke. 
Kannada: hagga tuNDAyitu)

Tulu: puggae puDavu
English: The balloon may burst
Kannada: balloon oDedItu

Tulu: ayena kai poliND
English: His hand broke
Kannada: avana kai muriyitu)

Transitive:
Tulu: yAn enna  bElen onji dinaT mugipuvae
English: I will finish my work in a day
Kannada: nAnu nanna kelasavannu ondu dinadalli mugisuttEne

Tulu: ninna kai polipuvae
English: I will break your hand
Kannada: ninna kai muriyuttEne

Tulu: Aye maronu kaDte
English: He cut down the tree.
Kannada: avanu maravannu kaDida

Tulu: bAlae puggen puDapu
English: The kid may burst the balloon
Kannada: magu balloon annu oDedItu

Causative verb

Tulu: yAn enna bElen EreDANDala pand mugipAve
English: I will make someone to finish my work
Kannada: nAnu nanna kelasavannu yArallAdarU hELi mugisuttEne

Tulu: ninna kai polipAvae
English: I will make someone to break your hand
Kannada: ninna kaiyannu murisuttEne

Tulu: Aye maronu kaDpAye
English: He made someone to cut the tree
Kannada: avanu maravannu kaDisida

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See you next week! 

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