Friday, 29 April 2016

Tulu Lesson 14: Present Perfect Tense

Hello everyone, welcome back!

Today we are going to learn a new tense in Tulu. This tense is Present Perfect Tense.

Look at this sentence:

I saw him

We already know how to say this in Tulu: yAn Ayen tUyae

Today, we will learn this:

I have seen him.

Do you remember how we made a verb conjuation in simple past tense? In Present Perfect Tense we follow the same rule with a bit difference.

We have to just add ‘d’ sound (‘d’ will be changed to ‘t’, if it is a Class A verb) to the verb stem of simple past tense to get the verb stem of Present Perfect Tense.

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As we learned before, there are three different forms of verb conjugation in Simple Past tense.

1. Verbs ending in ‘pu’

To form verb stem of Simple Past Tense, replace ‘pu’ with ‘t’.

malpu (malpuni) – To do/make

malpu >>> malt

Simple Past verb stem + d = Present Perfect verb stem

malt + d = malt’d

Now add the personal endings to Present Perfect verb stem.

malt’d + ae = malt’dae – I have done (Kannada: mADiddEne)

kalpu (kalpuni) – To learn

kalpu >>> kalt

kalt + d + ae = kalt’dae – I have learned (Kannada: kaltiddEne)

2. Verbs ending in ‘N’

To form verb stem of Simple Past Tense, add ‘D’ sound to root verb.

kEN (kENuni) -  To hear/ask

kEN + D >>> kEND

Simple Past verb stem + d = Present Perfect verb stem

kEND + d = kEND’d

Now add the personal endings to Present Perfect verb stem.

kEND’d + ae = kEND’dae (In common Tulu, it’s pronounced ‘kEndae’) – I have heard/asked (Kannada: kELiddEne)

tiN (tiNpini) – To eat (Class A verb)

tiN + D >>> tiND

tiND + d + ae = tiND’dae (In common Tulu, it’s pronounced ‘tintae’) -  I have eaten (Kannada: tindiddEne)

3. All other verbs.

To form verb stem of Simple Past Tense, add ‘i’ sound to root verb.

bUr (bUruni – To fall)

bUr + i >>> bUri

Simple Past verb stem + d = Present Perfect verb stem

When adding ‘d’ sound, the final vowel ‘i’ is removed. So we can add ‘d’ sound to the root verb directly.

bUr(i) + d = bUrd

Now add the personal endings to Present Perfect verb stem.

bUrd + ae = bUrdae – I have fallen (Kannada: biddiddEne)

tU (tUpini) – To see (Class A verb)

Simple Past verb stem + d = Present Perfect verb stem

tU + d = tUd

Now add the personal endings to Present Perfect verb stem.

tUd + ae = tUtae (‘d’ is pronounced as ‘t’, if it is a Class A verb) – I have seen (Kannada: nODiddEne)


Personal endings in Present Perfect Tense are same as Simple Past Tense.


Singular
Plural
Pronoun
Ending
Example: pO
Pronoun
Ending
Example: pO
First Person
yAn
ae
pOtae
nama/enkulu
a
pOta
Second Person
I
a
pOta
nikulu/Ir
ar
pOtar
Third Person
Masc.
Aye/imbe
e
pOte
akulu/Ar/mokulu/mEr
er
pOter
Fem.
Al/mOlu
al
pOtal
Neut.
au/undu
ND
pOt’ND
aikulu/undekulu
a
pOta



The Present Perfect Tense may be confusing for new learners as it is pronounced differently from its original form depending on the dialects.

There are two major changes in the pronounciatiuon:

1. batt’dae >>> baidae

Look at the verb ‘bar’ (barpini – To come). The simple past verb stem of ‘bar’ is ‘batt’ and so Present Perfect verb stem is “batt’d

batt’dae – I have come (Kannada: bandiddEne)

But in common Tulu it is pronounced as ‘baidae

Some of the verbs which are conjugated same as ‘baidae’ in Present Perfect Tense are:

leppu (leppuni) – To call

leppu >>> lett >>> lett’d

lett’dae >>> leidae – I have called (Kannada: karediddEne)


jeppu (jeppuni) – To sleep

jeppu >>> jett >>> jett’d

jett’dae >>> jeidae – I have slept (Kannada: malagiddEne)


jappu (jappuni) – To get down/descend

jappu >>> jatt >>> jatt’d

jatt’dae >>> jaidae – I have descended (Kannada: iLididdEne)


deppu (deppuni) – To remove/open

deppu >>> dett >>> dett’d

dett’dae >>> deidae – I have removed (Kannada: tegediddEne)


sai (saipini) – To die

sai >>> sait >>> sait’d

sait’dae >>> saidae – I have died  (Kannada: sattiddEne)


2. kEND’dae >> kEndae

Look at the verb ‘kEN’ (kENunu – To hear/ask). The simple past verb stem of ‘kEN’ is ‘kEND’ and so Present Perfect verb stem is “kEND’d

kEND’dae – I have heard/asked (Kannada: kELiddEne)

But in common Tulu it is pronounced as ‘kEndae

All the verbs ending in ‘N’ sound, including Reflexive Verbs are conjugated same as ‘kEndae’ in Present Perfect Tense.

dettoNu (dettoNuni) - To take for oneself/To accept

dettoNu >>> dettoND >>> dettoND’d

dettoND’dae >>> dettondae – I have taken (Kannada: tegedukoNDiddEne)


paN (paNpini) – To tell/say

paN >>> paND >>> paND’d

paND’dae >>> pantae – I have told (Kannada: hELiddEne)

Here ‘d’ sound changes to ‘t’ since it is a Class A verb.


uN (uNpini) – To eat (meals/rice)

uN >>> uND >>> uND’d

uND’dae >>> untae – I have eaten (Kannada: uNDiddEne)


Alright! Now let us look at some more verbs:

tU (tUpini) – To see (Kannada: nODu)

yAn tUtae – I have seen
I tUta – You have seen
Aye/imbe tUte – He have seen
Al/mOlu tUtal – She have seen
au/undu tUt’ND – It have seen
nama/enkulu tUta – We have seen
Ir/nikulu tUtar – You have seen
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr tUter – They have seen
undekulu/aikulu tUta – They have seen

buDu (buDpini) – To leave (Kannada: biDu)

yAn buDtae – I have left
I buDta – You have left
Aye/imbe buDte – He has left
Al/mOlu buDtal – She has left
au/undu buDt’ND – It has left
nama/enkulu buDta – We have left
Ir/nikulu buDtar – You have left
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr buDter – They have left
undekulu/aikulu buDta – They have left

kEN (kENuni) To hear/listen/ask

yAn kEndae – I have asked
I kEnda – You have asked
Aye/imbe kEnde – He has asked
Al/mOlu kEndal – She has asked
au/undu kEnd’ND – It has asked
nama/enkulu kEnda – We have asked
Ir/nikulu kEndar – You have asked
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kEnder – They have asked
undekulu/aikulu kEnda – They have asked

A (Apini) – To become/happen

yAn Atae – I have become
I Ata – You have become
Aye/imbe Ate – He has become
Al/mOlu Atal – She has become
au/undu At’ND – It has become /It has happened/It’s been done
nama/enkulu Ata – We have become
Ir/nikulu Atar – You have become
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr Ater – They have become
undekulu/aikulu Ata – They have become

bar (barpini) – To come

yAn baidae – I have come
I baida – You have come
Aye/imbe baide – He has come
Al/mOlu baidal – She has come
au/undu baid’ND – It has come
nama/enkulu baida – We have come
Ir/nikulu baidar – You have come
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr baider – They have come
undekulu/aikulu baida – They have come

kana (kanapini) – To bring

This verb is derived from compound verb ‘kondu bar’. So, it is conjugated as ‘bar’

yAn kanaidae – I have brought
I kanaida – You have brought
Aye/imbe kanaide – He has brought
Al/mOlu kanaidal – She has brought
au/undu kanaid’ND – It has brought
nama/enkulu kanaida – We have brought
Ir/nikulu kanaidar – You have brought
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kanaider – They have brought
undekulu/aikulu kanaida – They have brought

kono (konopini) – To take away

This verb is derived from compound verb ‘kondu pO’. So, it is conjugated as ‘pO’

yAn konotae – I have taken it away
I konota – You have taken it away
Aye/imbe konote – He has taken it away
Al/mOlu konotal – She has taken it away
au/undu konot’ND – It has taken it away
nama/enkulu konota – We have taken it away
Ir/nikulu konotar – You have taken it away
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr konoter – They have taken it away
undekulu/aikulu konota – They have taken it away

kApu (kApuni) – To wait

yAn kAt’dae – I have waited
I kAt’da – You have waited
Aye/imbe kAt’de – He has waited
Al/mOlu kAt’dal – She has waited
au/undu kAt’d’ND – It has waited
nama/enkulu kAt’da – We have waited
Ir/nikulu kAt’dar – You have waited
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kAt’der – They have waited
undekulu/aikulu kAt’da – They have waited

kalpu (kalpuni) – To learn

yAn kalt’dae – I have learned
I kalt’da – You have learned
Aye/imbe kalt’de – He has learned
Al/mOlu kalt’dal – She has learned
au/undu kalt’d’ND – It has learned
nama/enkulu kalt’da – We have learned
Ir/nikulu kalt’dar – You have learned
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kalt’der – They have learned
undekulu/aikulu kalt’da – They have learned


Example sentences:

Tulu: yAn A bUkunu raDD sarti Odudae
English: I have read that book two times
Kannada: nAnu A pustakavannu eraDu sala OdiddEne

Tulu: bAlae jeid’ND
English: The kid has slept
Kannada: magu malagide

Tulu: yAn A picture mUji sarti tUtae
English: I have seen that movie three times
Kannada: nAnu A cinema mUru sala nODiddEne

Tulu: I tOra Ata
English: you have become fat
Kannada: nInu dappagAgiddIya

Tulu: akulu illaDe pOter
English: They have gone home
Kannada: avaru manege hOgiddAre

Tulu: mara buled'ND
English: The tree has been grown
Kannada: mara beLedide

Tulu: kukku parnd'd'ND
English: mango has ripened
Kannada: mAvu haNNAgide

Tulu: pU arald'ND
English: The flower has bloomed
Kannada: hUvu araLide

Tulu: binner baider
English: guests have come
Kannada: neNTaru bandiddAre

Tulu: yAn untae / yAn oNas malt'dae
English: I have had lunch
Kannada: nAnu UTa mADiddene

Tulu: yAn tulu kalt'dae
English: I have learned Tulu
Kannada: nAnu tuLu kaltiddEne

Tulu: akulu onji posa car dettonder
English: they have bought a new car
Kannada: avaru ondu hosa car takoNDiddAre

Tulu: akulu mUji puchcheda kinni kanaider
English: They have brought three kittens
Kannada: avaru mUru bekkina mari tandiddAre

Tulu: yAn maisUr'g vora pOte
English: I have been to Mysore once
Kannada: nAnu maisUrige omme hOgiddEne

Tulu: enkulu illada eduru raDD tArae neDta
English: we have planted two coconut trees in front of the house
Kannada: nAvu mane eduru eraDu tengina mara neTTiddEve

Tulu: I enan madat'da
English: nInu nannannu maratiddIya
Kannada: you have forgotten me

Tulu: yAn nikk onji e-mail kaDapuD'dae
English: I have sent an e-mail to you
Kannada: nAnu ninage ondu e-mail kaLuhisiddEne

Tulu: Aye  maronu kaDpAde
English: He has made someone cut the tree
Kannada: avanu maravannu kaDisiddAne

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

If you have any questions, feel free to comment. See you next week!


solmelu!

Friday, 22 April 2016

Tulu Lesson 13: Adjectives – Part 1

Hello everyone, welcome back!

So far we have learned Simple Present, Future Tense and Simple Past Tense in Tulu. The tenses we have learned are good enough for us to take another step. Before going to other tenses, I am going to start a different part of the Tulu language. Today, we are going to learn some simple adjectives. Adjectives are words that describe or modify nouns or pronouns. Generally it tells about quality, quantity, size, shape, age, colour and material of nouns or pronouns used in the sentences.

Tulu
Kannada
English
eDDae
oLLe
Good
porlu/shOku
chanda
Beautiful
malla
doDDa
Big
elya
saNNa / chikka
Small
mast
tumbA
Very much, a lot
dinja/jAsti
tumbA/jAsti
Much, full
vantae/chUru
svalpa
A little, a bit
mAta / pUra
ellA
All/whole
iDi
iDi
Full, whole
ardha
ardha
Half
kelavu
kelavu
Some
pAka
halavu
Many
nirmala / sudda
svachcha
Clean
para
haLe
Old
posa
hosa
New

Click here to learn more adjectives in Tulu.
Click here to learn colours in Tulu.

Colours and numbers can also be used as adjectives. 

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Example sentences:

Tulu: Aye eDDae naramAni
English: He is a good man
Kannada: avanu oLLe manushya

Tulu: Aye mast eDDae narmAni
English: He is a very good man
Kannada: avanu tumbA oLLe manushya

Tulu:  porluda poNNu / shOkuda poNNu
English: Beautiful girl
Kannada: chandada huDugi

Tulu: yAn onji malla illan tUyae
English: I saw a big house
Kannada: nAnu ondu doDDa maneyannu nODide

Tulu: parbogu mAterla posa kuNTu pADuver
Engish: Everyone wears new dress for the festival
Kannda: habbakke ellarU hosa baTTE uDuttAre

Tulu: Aye enna para dOsti
English: He is my old friend
Kannada: avanu nanna haLe geLeya

Tulu:  Aye boldu angi pAduve
English: He will wear a white shirt
Kannada: avanu biLi baTTe hAktAne

Tulu: enna illaD El kONae uNDu
English: There are seven rooms in my house.
Kannada: nanna maneyalli ELu kONegaLu ive.

Tulu:  pAka jana sEriyer
English: many people gathered
Kannada: halavu jana sEridaru.

Tulu: onji shOkuda elya ill
English: A beautiful small house
Kannada: ondu chandada saNNa mane

Tulu: kappu nAyi koret’ND
English: The black dog barked
Kannada: kappu nAyi bogaLitu

Tulu: nUdu jana itter
English: There were hundred people
Kannada: nUru jana iddaru

Tulu: yAn bechcha nIr pariyae
English: I drank warm water
Kannada: nAnu bisi nIru kuDide

Tulu: Aye onji posa angi dettoNDe
English: He bought a new shirt
Kannada: avanu ondu hosa angi takoNDa

Adjectives can be formed from different words like nouns and verbs. But they are used in Genitive case (suffix  ‘da’/’ta’ or ‘na’).

Some of adjectives which are formed from nouns:

Tulu
Kannada
English
marata
marada
Wooden
dUrada 
dUrada
Distant
kaitalda/muTTada 
hattirada
Nearby
sukhata
sukhada
Happy 
dukkhada
dukkhada
Sorrowful
bEneda
nOvina
Painful
kashTada / bangada
kashTada
Difficult
sulabada
sulabada
Easy
buddhida
buddhiya
Clever
koNDATada
muddAda
Lovely

Examples:

Tulu: marata ill
English: Wooden house
Kannada: marada mane

Tulu: dUrada Uru
English: Distant village
Kannada: dUrada Uru

Tulu: sukhata bad’k
English: Happy life
Kannada: sukhavAda baduku

Tulu: sulabada bElae
English: Easy work
Kannada: sulabhavada kelasa

Tulu: koNDATada bAlae / mOkeda bAlae
English: Lovely kid
Kannada: muddAda magu

Tulu: shOkuda nAyida kinni
English: cute puppy
Kannada: chandada nAyi mari

Tulu: buddhida nAyi
English: buddhiya (jANa) nAyi
English: Clever dog

Tulu: bangArda ungila
English: Gold ring
Kannda: chinnada ungura

Tulu: kuppida kAjilu
English: Glass bangles
Kannada: gAjina baLegaLu

We will learn how to form adjectives from verbs in coming lessons.

Comparative Adjectives: There are no comparative adjectives in Tulu, but it can be expressed by using ablative case.

Examples:

Tulu: rAme dUmeDd malla
English: Rama is bigger (older) than Duma.
Kannada: rAma dUmaniginta doDDava

Tulu: moleDd Al porlu
English: she is more beautiful than her
Kannada: ivaLiginta avaLu chanda

Tulu: kuDla uDupiDd muTTa
English: Mangalore is nearer than Udupi
Kannada: mangaLUru uDupiginta hattira

Tulu: imbe mAtereDd'la buddhivante
English: He is the cleverest of them all.
Kannada: ivanu ellarigintalU buddhivanta

Tulu: enaDd I udda
English: You are taller than me
Kannada: nanaginta nInu udda

Tulu: Aye ninaDd tOra
English: He is fatter than you
Kannada: avanu ninaginta dappagiddAne

Tulu: yAn ninaDd sapura
English: I am skinner than you
Kannada: nAnu ninaginta sapura


Some of the adjectives can be used with pronouns to indicate gender:

malla – big
malla + Aye = mallAye – Elder (M) (Kannada: doDDavanu)
malla + Al = mallAl -  Elder (F) (Kannada: doDDavaLu)
malla + au = mallau – Elder / The one that is big (N) (Kannada: doDDadu)
malla + Ar = mallAr – Elder (M/F) (Kannada: doDDavaru)
malla + akulu = mallakulu – Elders (Kannada: doDDavaru)

tOra – Thick / Fat
tOradAye – He who is fat (Kannada: dappaginavanu)
tOradAl – She who is fat (Kannada: dappaginavaLu)
tOradau – The one which is fat (Kannada: dappaginadu)
tOradAr – He/She who is fat (Kannada: dappaginavaru)
tOradakulu – They who are fat (Kannada: dappaginavaru)

kaital – Near
kaitaldAye – He who is nearby/close (Kannada: hattiradavanu)
kaitaldAl – She who is nearby/close (Kannada: hattiradavaLu)
kaitaldau – The one which is nearby/close (Kannada: hattiraddu)
kaitaldAr - He/She who is nearby/close (Kannada: hattiradavaru)
kaitaldakulu - They who are nearby/close (Kannada: hattiradavaru)

porlu – Beauty
porludAye – He who is beautiful (Kannada: chandadavanu)
porludAl – She who is beautiful (Kannada: chandadavaLu)
porludau – The one which is beautiful (Kannada: chandaddu)
porludAr - He/She who is beautiful (Kannada: chandadavaru)
porludakulu - They who are beautiful (Kannada: chandadavaru)

kAs’dAye – He who has money / Rich man (Kannada: duDDiruvava)
kAs’dAl – She who has money / Rich woman (Kannada: duDDiruvavaLu)
kAs’dAr - – He/She who has money (Kannada: duDDiruvavaru)
kAs’dakulu – They who has money (Kannada: duDDiruvavaru)

There are some words which are created from adjectives and can be used as nouns:

posa – new (Kannada: hosa)
posatt – The one which is new (Kannada: hosattu)
posabe – He who is new (Kannada: hosaba)
posabedi – She who is new (Kannada: hosabaLu)
posaber – They who are new (Kannda: hosabaru)

para – old
paratt – The one which is old (Kannada: haLattu)
parabe – He who is old / old man (Kannada: haLaba / muduka)
parabedi /parabu – She who is old / old woman  (Kannada: haLabaLu / muduki)
paraber – They who are old (Kannada: haLabaru / mudukaru)

buddhivante - He who is clever (Kannada: buddhivanta)
buddhivantedi - she who is clever (Kannada: buddhivante)
buddhivanter - They who are clever (Kannada: buddhivantaru)

javane - He who is young (Kannada: yuvaka)
javandi - she who is young (Kannada: yuvati)
javaner - those who are young (Kannada: yuvakaru)

tuluve – Tuluva (M) (Kannada: tuLuva)
tuluvedi – Tuluva (F) (Kannada: tuLuvaLu)
tuluver – Tuluvas (Kannada: tuLuvaru)

baDave – Poor man (Kannada: baDava)
baDavedi – Poor woman (Kannada: baDavaLu)
baDaver – Poor people (Kannada: baDavaru)

sirivante – Rich man (Kannada: sirivanta)
sirivantedi - Rich woman (Kannada: sirivante)
sirivanter – Rich people (Kannada: sirivanta)

That is all for today. If you have any questions, feel free to comment. See you next week!

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.


solmelu!

Sunday, 10 April 2016

Tulu Lesson 12: Reflexive Verbs

namaskAra!

Hello everyone, welcome back!

Last week we have learned how to form causative verbs in Tulu. Today we are going to learn another verb form. Reflexive verb is a verb whose direct object is the same as its subject. It indicates that a person is performing the action for himself/herself.

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Reflexive form is formed by adding the suffix ‘oNu’ to the verb stem of Simple Past Tense. The suffix ‘oNu’ is derived from the auxiliary verb ‘koNu’ (koNuni – To hold).

When you remove personal endings from verb conjugations, you will get the verb stem. Now let us take the verb ‘malpu’ (malpuni – to do/make). In Simple Past tense it is conjugated as ‘maltae’, ‘malte’, ‘maltal’, ‘malter’ etc. If you remove personal endings, you will get the verb stem ‘malt’.

malt + oNu = maltoNu – To do/make for oneself (Kannada: mADikoLLu)

As we learned before, there are three different forms of verb conjugation in Simple Past tense.

1. Verbs ending in ‘pu’

To form verb stem of Simple Past Tense, replace ‘pu’ with ‘t’.

kalpu (kalpuni- To learn)

kalpu >>> kalt

kalt + oNu = kaltoNu – To learn for oneself (Kannada: kalituko)

deppu (deppuni - To remove/take out)

deppu >>> dett

dett + oNu = dettoNu – To take for oneself/accept (Kannada: tegeduko)


2. Verbs ending in ‘N’

To form verb stem of Simple Past Tense, add ‘D’ sound to root verb.

tiN (tiNpini – To eat)

tiN + D >>> tiND

tiND + oNu = tiNDoNu - To eat for oneself (Kannada: tinduko)

kEN (kENuni – To hear/ask)

kEN + D >>> kEND

kEND + oNu = kENDoNu – To ask/hear for oneself (Kannada: kELiko)

3. All other verbs.

To form verb stem of Simple Past Tense, add ‘i’ sound to root verb.

par (parpini – To drink)

par + i >>> pari

However, when adding the suffix ‘oNu’, the final vowel ‘i’ is removed.

par(i) + oNu = paroNu – To drink for oneself (Kannada: kuDidukO)

tU (tUpini – To see)

tU(i) + oNu = tUvoNu – To take care/look after oneself (nODiko)

tAng (tAnguni – To tolerate)

tAng(i) + oNu = tAngoNu – To tolerate for oneself (Kannada: sahisiko)

patt (pattuni – To catch)

patt(i) + oNu = pattoNu – To hold

We can also form reflexive form of causative verbs.

malpA (malpAvuni – cause to do/make)

malpA(i) + oNu = malpAvonu – cause to do/make for oneself (Kannada: mADisiko)

Other than this the verb ‘koNu’is also used in forming compound verbs.


Examples:

edur + koNu = edkoNu – To welcome (Kannada: svAgatisu/edurugoLLu)
(edur = front)

kai + koNu = kaikoNu – To undertake (Kannada: kaigoLLu)
(kai = hand)


The reflexive verbs usually used with reflexive pronouns ‘tAn’ (himself/herself/itself) and ‘tankulu’ (themselves). Declensions of these pronouns are same as ‘yAn’ (I) and ‘enkulu’ (We).

Reflexive verbs are conjugated in the same way like Class B verbs in Simple Present/Future Tense and like verbs ending in ‘N’ in Simple Past Tense.

Examples:

yAn detoNuvae – I take for myself/I will take for myself
au/undu detoNuNDu – It takes for itself/It will take for itself
I tAngoNuja– You don’t tolerate/You will not tolerate
nama/enkulu tAngoNuja – We don’t tolerate/We will not tolerate
Aye/imbe maltoNe – He will probably do for himself
au/undu maltoNu – It will probably do for itself
Al/imbal dettoNayal - She will probably not take for herself
au/undu dettoNand – It will probably not take for itself
nama/enkulu malpAvoNDa – We caused to make for ourselves
au/undu malpAvoND – It caused to make for itself
Ir/nikulu tUvoNDijar– You did not take care of yourselves
undekulu/aikulu tUvoNDija – They did not take care of theirselves

Tulu: rAme onji posa kAr dettoNuve
English: Rama will purchase a new car (for himself)
Kannada: rAma ondu hosa kAru takoLLuttAne

Tulu: Ar enDa nUdu rupAyi sAla dettoNDer
English: He/She borrowed Rs. 100 from me.
Kannada: avaru nanninda nUru rupAyi sAla takoNDru

Tulu: I bUkulen vontae pattoNuvara?
English: Can (will) you hold these books for a moment?
Kannada: I pustakagaLannu svalpa hiDidukoLLuttIra?

Tulu: akulu parbogu posa angi pollAvoNDer
English: They had a new dress sewed for festival (for themselves). 
Kannada: avaru habbakke hosa angi holisikoNDru

Tulu: Aye tanna bElae tAn maltoNDe
English: He did his work (for himself)
Kannada: avanu tanna kelasa tAnu mADikoNDa)

Tulu: Ar dEverDa vara paDeyoNDer
English: He/She got a boon from God for himself/herself.
Kannada: avaru dEvarinda vara paDedukoNDaru

Tulu: akulu oryenori AkoNDer
English: They beat each other.
Kannada: avaru obbarannobbaru hoDedukoNDru

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.


See you next week! 

Saturday, 2 April 2016

Tulu Lesson 11: Causative Verbs

namaskAra!

Hello everyone,

Today we are going to learn causative verbs. Causative verbs express the idea of somebody causing something to happen or causing another person to do something. Let us learn how to make the causative verbs.

To make causative forms for Class A verbs, add ‘pA’ suffix and for Class B verbs, add ‘A’ suffix to root verb. This gives us a whole new set of verbs that are easy to memorize since they are made using the verbs we are already familiar with.

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Class A:

tiN (tiNpini) – To eat (Kannada: tinnuvudu)
tiNpA (tiNpAvuni) – cause to eat/ To make someone to eat (Kannada: tinnisuvudu)

bar (barpini) – To come (Kannada: baruvudu)
barpA (barpAvuni) – cause to come (Kannada: barisuvudu)

buDu (buDpini) – To leave (Kannada: biDuvudu)
buDpA (buDpAvuni) – cause to leave/To draw(a picture)/To dilate (Kannada: biDisu)

tU (tUpini) – To see (Kannada: nODuuvudu)
tUpA (tUpAvuni) – To show (Kannada: nODisuvudu/tOrisuvudu)

Class B:

malpu (malpuni) – To do/make (Kannada: mADuvudu)
malpA (malpAvuni) – cause to do/make (Kannada: mADisuvudu)

gend (genduni) – To win (Kannada: gelluvudu)
gendA (gendAvuni) – cause to win/make someone to win

kullu (kulluvunu) – To sit (Kannada: kuLitukoLLuvudu)
kullA (kullAvuni) – cause to sit (Kannada: kUrisuvudu)

tOju (tOjuni) – To be seen (Kannada: tOruvudu)
tOjA (tOjAvuni) – To show (Kannada: tOrisuvudu)

kalpu (kalpuni) – To learn (Kannada: kaliyuvudu)
kalpA (kalpAvuni) – To teach (Kannada: kalisuvudu)

Sometimes ‘Du’ or ‘DA’ suffixes are used for some verbs. However, these verbs are very few.

leppu (leppuni) – To call (Kannada: kareyuvudu)
leppuDA (leppuDAvuni) – cause to call (Kannada: karesuvudu)

naDapu (naDapuni) – To walk (Kannada: naDeyuvudu)
naDapA (naDapAvuni) or naDapuDA (naDapuDAvuni)  –cause to walk (Kannada: naDesuvudu)

jeppu (jeppuni) – To sleep (Kannada: malaguvudu)
jeppA (jeppAvuni) or jeppuDA (jeppuDAvuni)  –cause to sleep (Kannada: malagisuvudu)

jappu (jappuni) – To get down/decend (Kannada: iLiyuvudu)
jappA (jappAvuni) or jappuDA (jappuDAvuni)  –cause to get down (Kannada: iLisuvudu)

kaDapu (kaDapuni) – To cross (Kannada: dATuvudu)
kaDapA (kaDapAvuni) – cause to cross (Kannada: dATisuvudu)
kaDapuDu (kaDapuDuni) – To send (Kannada: kaLuhisuvudu)
kaDapuDA (kaDapuDAvuni) – To make someone to send (Kannada: kaLuhisuvante mADu)

Causative verbs can be conjugated in the same way like Class B verbs. However, these verbs does not have uncertain future tense in positive form (except ‘kaDapuDu’ – To send), but have it in negative form.

Simple Present/Future Positive:

Causative verb + uv + personal ending

yAn malpAvae – I make someone to do/I will make someone to do 
I malpAva– You make someone to do/You will make someone to do 
Aye/imbe malpAve – He makes someone to do/He will make someone to do 
Al/mOlu malpAval– She makes someone to do/She will make someone to do 
au/undu malpAvuNDu – It makes someone to do/It will make someone to do 
nama/enkulu malpAva – We make someone to do/We will make someone to do 
Ir/nikulu malpAvar– You make someone to do/You will make someone to do 
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr malpAver– They make someone to do/They will make someone to do 
undekulu/aikulu malpAva – They make someone to do/They will make someone to do 

Simple Present/Future Negative:

Causative verb + personal ending

yAn malpAvujae – I do not make someone to do/I will not make someone to do 
I malpAvuja– You dp not make someone to do/You will not make someone to do 
Aye/imbe malpAvuje – He does not make someone to do/He will not make someone to do 
Al/mOlu malpAvujal– She does not make someone to do/She will not make someone to do 
au/undu malpAvuji – It does not make someone to do/It will not make someone to do 
nama/enkulu malpAvuja – We do not make someone to do/We will not make someone to do 
Ir/nikulu malpAvujar– You do not make someone to do/You will not make someone to do 
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr malpAvujer– They do not make someone to do/They will not make someone to do 
undekulu/aikulu malpAvuja – They do not make someone to do/They will not make someone to do 

Uncertain Future Positive:

Causative verb + personal ending

yAn kaDapuDae – I will probably send 
I kaDapuDa– You will probably send 
Aye/imbe kaDapuDe – He will probably send 
Al/mOlu kaDapuDal – She will probably send 
au/undu kaDapuDu– It will probably send 
nama/enkulu kaDapuDa – We make will probably send 
Ir/nikulu kaDapuDar – You will probably send 
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kaDapuDer – They will probably send 
undekulu/aikulu kaDapuDa – They will probably send 

Uncertain Future Negative:

Causative verb + personal ending

yAn tojapAvayae  – I will probably not show 
I tojapAvaya – You will probably not show 
Aye/imbe tojapAvaye – He will probably not show 
Al/mOlu tojapAvayal – She will probably not show 
au/undu tojapAvand – It will probably not show 
nama/enkulu tojapAvaya – We will probably not show 
Ir/nikulu tojapAvayar – You will probably not show 
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr tojapAvayer – They will probably not show 
undekulu/aikulu tojapAvaya – They will probably not show 

Simple Past Positive:

Causative verb + i + personal ending

yAn tiNpAyae  – I made someone to eat 
I tiNpAya– You made someone to eat 
Aye/imbe tiNpAye– He made someone to eat 
Al/mOlu tiNpAyal– She made someone to eat 
au/undu tiNpAND– It made someone to eat 
nama/enkulu tiNpAya– We made someone to eat 
Ir/nikulu tiNpAyar– You made someone to eat 
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr tiNpAyer– They made someone to eat 
undekulu/aikulu tiNpAya – They made someone to eat 

Simple Past Negative:

yAn leppuDAyijae  – I didn’t make someone to call
I leppuDAyija– You didn’t make someone to call
Aye/imbe leppuDAyije – He didn’t make someone to call
Al/mOlu leppuDAyijal – She didn’t make someone to call
au/undu leppuDAyiji – It didn’t make someone to call
nama/enkulu leppuDAyija – We didn’t make someone to call
Ir/nikulu leppuDAyijar – You didn’t make someone to call
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr leppuDAyijer – They didn’t make someone to call
undekulu/aikulu leppuDAyija – They didn’t make someone to call

Examples:
Tulu: appae bAlen jeppDAyal
English: Mother made the child to sleep.
Kannada: tAyi maguvannu malagisidaLu

Tulu: Aye mAterenla telipAve 
English: He makes everyone to laugh
Kannada: avanu ellarannu nagistAne

Tulu: yAn nikk teripAve
English: I will let you know
Kannada: nAnu ninage tiListEne

Tulu: Ar bAlen bulipAyer
English: He/She made the child to cry.
Kannada: avaru maguvannu aLisidaru

Tulu: yAn nikleg tulu kalpAvae
English: I will teach you Tulu
Kannada: naNu nimage tulu kalisuttEne

Tulu: jOkulen sAleg kaDupuDiyae
English: I sent the children to the school
Kannada: makkaLannu shAlege kaLuhiside

Tulu: yAn AyeDd satya paNpAvae
English: I will make him to say the truth
Kannada: nAnu avaninda satya hElistEne




Some of the intransitive verbs can be changed to transitive verbs by adding ‘pu’ suffix, and then it can be changed to causative verb by adding ‘A’ suffix. Intransitive verb is a verb that does not need a direct object to complete its meaning. Transitive verb is a verb that needs a direct object to complete its meaning.

kAyi – (kAyuni) – To get heated (Kannada: kAyu)
kAypu (kAypuni) - To make hot/fry (Kannada: kAyisu)

poliy (poliyuni) – To get split/cut (Kannada: muriyu)
polipu (polipuni) – To split/cut (Kannada: muriyu)

uriy (uriyuni) – To burn (Kannada: uriyu)
uripu (uripuni) – To make it burn/To blow (Kannada: urisu/Udu)

oriy (oriyuni) – To remain (Kannada: uLiyu)
oripu (oripuni) – To save/cause to remain (Kannada: uLisu)

mugiy (mugiyuni) – To end/cease (Kannada: mugiyu)
mugipu (mugipuni) – To finish/complete (Kannada: mugisu)

maDiy (maDiyuni) – To get folded (Kannada: maDachikoLLu)
maDipu (maDipuni) – To fold (Kannada: maDachu)

pariy (pariyuni) – To get torn (Kannada: hariyu)
paripu (paripuni) – To tear (Kannada: hariyu)

dariy (dariyuni) – To be broken/burst (Kannada: oDeyu)
darpu (darpuni) – To break/burst (Kannada: oDeyu)

puDA (puDAvuni) – To be broken/be blasted (Kannada: oDeyu)
puDapu (puDapuni) – To break/blast (Kannada: oDeyu)

kaDiy (kaDiyuni) – To be cut/broken (Kannada: muriyu/tuNDAgu)
kaDpu (kaDpuni) – To cut/break (Kannada: kaDiyu/tuNDu mADu)

These verbs can be changed to causative form by adding ‘A’ suffix.

kAypA - cause to hot/fry (Kannada: kAyisu)
polipA – cause to split/cut (Kannada: murisu)
uripA – cause to blow (Kannada: Udisu)
oripA – To make someone to save/cause to remain (Kannada: uLisu)
mugipA – cause to finish/complete (Kannada: mugisu)
maDipA– cause to fold (Kannada: maDachisu(?))
paripA – cause to tear (Kannada: harisu)
darpA – cause to break/burst (Kannada: oDesu)
puDapA – cause to break/blast (Kannada: oDesu)
kaDpA – cause to cut/break (Kannada: kaDisu/tuNDu mADisu)

The following examples will differentiate between 3 verb forms:

Intransitive:
Tulu: lEs mugiND
English: Ceremony ended
Kannada: samArambha mugiyitu

Tulu: picture bEga mugiyuNDu
English: The movie will be ended soon
Kannada: cinema bEga mugiyuttade

Tulu: ball kaDiND
English: The rope broke. 
Kannada: hagga tuNDAyitu)

Tulu: puggae puDavu
English: The balloon may burst
Kannada: balloon oDedItu

Tulu: ayena kai poliND
English: His hand broke
Kannada: avana kai muriyitu)

Transitive:
Tulu: yAn enna  bElen onji dinaT mugipuvae
English: I will finish my work in a day
Kannada: nAnu nanna kelasavannu ondu dinadalli mugisuttEne

Tulu: ninna kai polipuvae
English: I will break your hand
Kannada: ninna kai muriyuttEne

Tulu: Aye maronu kaDte
English: He cut down the tree.
Kannada: avanu maravannu kaDida

Tulu: bAlae puggen puDapu
English: The kid may burst the balloon
Kannada: magu balloon annu oDedItu

Causative verb

Tulu: yAn enna bElen EreDANDala pand mugipAve
English: I will make someone to finish my work
Kannada: nAnu nanna kelasavannu yArallAdarU hELi mugisuttEne

Tulu: ninna kai polipAvae
English: I will make someone to break your hand
Kannada: ninna kaiyannu murisuttEne

Tulu: Aye maronu kaDpAye
English: He made someone to cut the tree
Kannada: avanu maravannu kaDisida

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.


See you next week!