Tuesday, 28 November 2017

Tulu Lesson 45: How to Make Plural Nouns

namaskAra! Welcome back!

mAterla encha ullar? saukhya ate? ini nama tuluTu bahuvachana padoklen encha malpunu’nd teriyonuga. Today let us learn how to make plural nouns in Tulu.

If you remember, we have already learned plural suffixes in Tulu in the first lesson. Today let us learn more about each suffix in detail.

As you know, we have following suffixes to make plural nouns in Tulu:

  • ‘lu’/‘kulu’ ಲು/ಕುಲು
  • ‘er’ ಎರ್
  • ‘allu’ (aDlu) ಅಲ್ಲು (ಅಡ್ಲು)

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Alright! Now let me explain how and when to use each suffix. We will first go with ‘allu’ since it is the easiest one.

1. ‘allu’ (aDlu) ಅಲ್ಲು (ಅಡ್ಲು– used with human nouns only (both masculine and feminine nouns)

This suffix is only used to make the nouns of relationship plural.

appae + allu >>> appaellu ಅಪ್ಪೆ್ಲ್ಲು (Mothers)
amme + allu >>> ammallu ಅಮ್ಮಲ್ಲು (Fathers)
palaye + allu >>> palayallu ಪಲಯಲ್ಲು (Elder brothers)
megye + allu >>> megyallu ಮೆಗ್ಯಲ್ಲು (Younger brothers)
pali + allu >>> paliyallu ಪಲಿಯಲ್ಲು (Elder sisters)
megdi + allu >>> megdyallu ಮೆಗ್ದಿಯಲ್ಲು (Younger sisters)
boDedi + allu >>> boDedyallu ಬೊಡೆದ್ಯಲ್ಲು (Wives)
kaNDane + allu >>> kaNDanallu ಕಂಡನಲ್ಲು (Husbands)

It was really easy right?  OK. Now let us look at ‘er’

2. ‘er’ ಎರ್ - used with human nouns only (both masculine and feminine nouns)

This suffix is mainly used with nouns of relationship and human names to give respect. Also, it is used with ‘a’ ending human nouns to make them plural or to give respect to a single person.  


Nouns of relationship with respect:

amme ಅಮ್ಮೆ >>> ammer ಅಮ್ಮೆರ್ (Father)
palaye ಪಲಯೆ >>> palayer ಪಲಯೆರ್ (Elder Brother)
aNNe ಅಣ್ಣೆ >>> aNNer ಅಣ್ಣೆರ್ (Elder Brother)
bhAve ಭಾವೆ >>> bhAver ಭಾವೆರ್ (Brother in law)
ajje ಅಜ್ಜೆ >>> ajjer ಅಜ್ಜೆರ್ (Grand Father)

Human names with respect:

rAma ರಾಮ >>> rAmer ರಾಮೆರ್ (Rama)
krishNa ಕೃಷ್ಣ >>> krishNer ಕೃಷ್ಣೆರ್ (Krishna)
harIsha ಹರೀಶ >>> harIsher ಹರೀಶೆರ್ (Harisha)

 ‘a’ ending human nouns in plural forms or with respect:

javana ಜವನ >>> javaner ಜವನೆರ್ (Young men/youths)
paraba ಪರಬ >>> paraber ಪರಬೆರ್ (Old men)
kalva ಕಲ್ವ >>> kalver ಕಲ್ವೆರ್ (Thieves)
buddhivanta ಬುದ್ಧಿವಂತ >>> buddhivanter ಬುದ್ಧಿವಂತೆರ್ (Wisemen)
pedda ಪೆದ್ದ >>> pedder ಪೆದ್ದೆರ್ (Fools)
tuluva ತುಲುವ >>> tuluver ತುಲುವೆರ್ (Tuluvas)
baNTa ಬಂಟ >>> baNTer ಬಂಟೆರ್ (Bunts)
sadasya ಸದಸ್ಯ >>> sadasyer ಸದಸ್ಯೆರ್ (Members)
rAja ರಾಜ >>> rAjer ರಾಜೆರ್ (Kings)
dEva ದೇವ >>> dEver ದೇವೆರ್ (Gods)
rakkasa ರಕ್ಕಸ >>> rakkaser ರಕ್ಕಸೆರ್ (Demons)
gurikAra ಗುರಿಕಾರ >>> gurikArer ಗುರಿಕಾರೆರ್ (Presidents/ head men)

This form is used for both making plural nouns and giving respect when speaking about a single person. However, sometimes the nouns like ‘dEver’ is used as a singular noun with respect and can be pluralized by adding an additional ‘lu’ suffix (dEverlu).


3. ‘lu’/‘kulu’ ಲು/ಕುಲು - used with both human (masculine and feminine nouns) and non-human nouns (Neuter nouns)

This suffix is mainly used with non-human nouns to make them plural. Also, it is used with human nouns which do not end in ‘a’ sound to make them plural or to give respect to a single person. 

Non-human nouns in plural forms:

petta ಪೆತ್ತ >>> pettalu ಪೆತ್ತಲು (Cows)
nAyi ನಾಯಿ >>> nAyilu ನಾಯಿಲು (Dogs)
mara ಮರ >>> marakulu ಮರಕುಲು (Trees)
dai ದೈ >>> daikulu ದೈಕುಲು (Plants)
sudae ಸುದೆ್ >>> sudekulu ಸುದೆಕುಲು (Rivers)
pakki ಪಕ್ಕಿ >>> pakkilu ಪಕ್ಕಿಲು (Birds)
pili ಪಿಲಿ >>> pilikulu ಪಿಲಿಕುಲು (Tigers)
pU ಪೂ >>> pUkulu ಪೂಕುಲು (Flowers)
angi ಅಂಗಿ >>> angilu ಅಂಗಿಲು (Shirts)
bUku ಬೂಕು >>> bUkulu ಬೂಕುಲು (Books)

Human nouns (which do not end in ‘a’ sound) in plural forms or with respect:

dani ದನಿ >>> danikulu ದನಿಕುಲು (Masters)
pagemAni ಪಗೆಮಾನಿ >>> pagemAnilu ಪಗೆಮಾನಿಲು (Enemies)
naramAni ನರಮಾನಿಲು >>> naramAnilu ನರಮಾನಿಲು (Human beings)
mantri ಮಂತ್ರಿ >>> mantrilu ಮಂತ್ರಿಲು (Ministers)
rAjakAraNi ರಾಜಕಾರಣಿ >>> rAjakAraNilu ರಾಜಕಾರಣಿಲು (Politicians)
guru ಗುರು >>> gurukulu ಗುರುಕುಲು (Gurus)
svAmIji ಸ್ವಾಮೀಜಿ >>> svAmIjilu ಸ್ವಾಮೀಜಿಲು (Swamijis)
pUjAri ಪೂಜಾರಿ >>> pUjArilu ಪೂಜಾರಿಲು (Poojaris)
AN ಆಣ್ >>> ANulu ಆಣುಲು (Boys)
poNNu ಪೊಣ್ಣು >>> poNNulu ಪೊಣ್ಣುಲು (Girls)

You may think what is the difference between suffixe ‘lu’ and ‘kulu’? Why some nouns take ‘lu’ suffix and some take ‘kulu’? Why the plural form of ‘pili’ is ‘pilikulu’, but the plural form of ‘petta’ is ‘pettalu’ and not ‘pattakulu’?  If you remember TuluLesson 3: Simple Present Tense, you know there are two types of conjugations in Simple Present Tense depending on the ‘matras’ (meters), a root verb takes to pronounce. The same rule applies here. If a noun takes 2  ‘matras’ to pronounce, then the suffix ‘kulu’ is used to make them plural. If a noun takes more than 2 ‘matras’ to pronounce, then the suffix ‘lu’ is used.

pili  >>> pi + li >>> 1+1= 2 matras

petta >>> pet + ta >>> 2+1= 3 matras
nAyi >>> nA + yi >>> 2+1= 3 matras
pU >>> 2 matras

Native Tulu speakers can use these suffixes appropriately without knowing about this rule. However, some may do mistakes when they come across some rarely used nouns or new nouns. Knowing this rule may help new learners to avoid mistakes when using plural forms in Tulu.  

That’s all we had today. To avoid any confusion, here is the summary of today’s lesson.

  • To make relationship nouns plural, use the suffix ‘allu’. (appaellu, palayallu etc.)
  • To give respect when using relationship nouns, use the suffix ‘er’. (ammer, ajjer etc.)
  • To give respect when using human names, use the suffix ‘er’. (rAmer, krishNer etc.)
  • To make plural or to give respect when using human nouns which end in ‘a’ sound, use the suffix ‘er’ (kalver, paraber, tuluver etc.)
  • To make plural or to give respect when using human nouns which do not end in ‘a’ sound, use the suffix ‘lu’ or ‘kulu’ depending on the ‘matras’.  (danikulu, mantrilu, gurukulu, naramAnilu etc.)
  • To make all non-human nouns plural, use the suffix ‘lu’ or ‘kulu’ depending on the ‘matras’.  (pettalu, pilikulu, pakkilu etc.)

If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu J


Bye!

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