Friday, 12 August 2016

Tulu Lesson 29: Past Perfect Tense

namaskAra! Welcome back!

I hope all of you are doing well with the lessons and have made good progress. Today, we are going to learn past perfect tense. Do you remember present perfect tense? If not please click here

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Look at the following sentence:

I had made

As you see, this structure is similar to what we have in present perfect tense “I have made” (auxiliary verb ‘have’ + past participle)

So, let’s take a very quick review of present perfect tense in Tulu first.

Past Gerund Perfect + Personal ending 

malt’d + ae = malt’dae – I have made

Now, delete the suffix ‘ae’ and add simple past tense of ‘uppuni/ippuni’ (To be) instead.

Here are the verb conjugations of the verb ‘uppuni/ippuni’ in simple past tense.

yAn ittae – I was
I itta – You were
Aye/imbe itte – He was
Al/mOlu ittal – She was
au/undu itt’ND – It was
nama/enkulu itta – We were
Ir/nikulu ittar – You were
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr itter – They were
undekulu/aikulu itta – They were

Past Gerund Perfect + simple past tense of ‘uppuni/ippuni’

malt’d + ittae = malt’dittae (also pronounced ‘maltittae’)  – I had made (Kannada: nAnu mADidde)

Is it clear?

yAn malt’dittae – I had made
I malt’ditta – You had made
Aye/imbe malt’ditte – He had made
Al/mOlu malt’dittal – She had made
au/undu malt’ditt’ND – It had made
nama/enkulu malt’ditta – We had made
Ir/nikulu malt’dittar – You had made
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr malt’ditter – They had made
undekulu/aikulu malt’ditta – They had made

tU (tUpini) – To see

tUd + ittae = tUdittae – I had seen (Kannada: nODidde)

yAn tUdittae – I had seen
I tUditta – You had seen
Aye/imbe tUditte – He had seen
Al/mOlu tUdittal – She had seen
au/undu tUditt’ND – It had seen
nama/enkulu tUditta – We had seen
Ir/nikulu tUdittar – You had seen
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr tUditter – They had seen
undekulu/aikulu tUditta – They had seen

bar (barpini) – To come

batt’d + ittae = batt’dittae (also pronounced ‘battittae’) – I had come (Kannada: bandidde)

yAn batt'dittae – I had come
I batt'ditta – You had come
Aye/imbe batt'ditte – He had come
Al/mOlu batt'dittal – She had come
au/undu batt'ditt’ND – It had come
nama/enkulu batt'ditta – We had come
Ir/nikulu batt'dittar – You had come
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr batt'ditter – They had come
undekulu/aikulu batt'ditta – They had come

kEN (kENuni) To hear/listen/ask

kEnd + ittae = kEndittae – I had asked (Kannada: kELidde)

yAn kEndittae – I had asked
I kEnditta – You had asked
Aye/imbe kEnditte – He had asked
Al/mOlu kEndittal – She had asked
au/undu kEnditt’ND – It had asked
nama/enkulu kEnditta – We had asked
Ir/nikulu kEndittar – You had asked
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kEnditter – They had asked
undekulu/aikulu kEnditta – They had asked

kApu (kApuni) – To wait

kAt’d + ittae = kAt’dittae (also pronounced ‘kAtittae’) – I had waited

yAn kAt'dittae – I had waited
I kAt'ditta – You had waited
Aye/imbe kAt'ditte – He had waited
Al/mOlu kAt'dittal – She had waited
au/undu kAt'ditt’ND – It had waited
nama/enkulu kAt'ditta – We had waited
Ir/nikulu kAt'dittar – You had waited
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kAt'ditter – They had waited
undekulu/aikulu kAt'ditta – They had waited

Examples:

Tulu: yAn kODae kuDlag pOdittae
English: I had been to Mangalore yesterday
Kannada: nAnu ninne mangaLUrige hOgidde

Tulu: yAn niNDa pandittae
English: I had told you
Kannada: nAnu ninage hELidde

Tulu: Ar ninan lett’ditter
English: He/She had called you
Kannada: avaru ninnannu karediddaru

Tulu: akulu pira batt’ditter
English: They had come back
Kannada: avaru hinde bandiddaru

Tulu: ninna aNNe enan tUditter
English: Your elder brother had seen me
Kannada: ninna aNNa nannannu nODiddaru

Tulu: mast jana sErditter
English: Lots of people had gathered
Kannada: tumbA jana sEriddaru

Tulu: enna dOsti mast kAs karchi malt’ditte
English: My friend had spent a lot of money
Kannada: nanna snEhita tumbA duDDu kharchu mADidda

Tulu: Ayena pars dakk’d pOditt’ND
English: He had lost his wallet
Kannada: avana parsu kaLedu hOgittu

Tulu: I enan marat’ditta
English: You had forgotten me
Kannada: nInu nannannu maretidde
  
Negative forms:

Negative forms in past perfect tense can be formed by using the negative form of the auxiliary verb ‘uppuni/ippuni’ in simple past tense.

yAn ittijae – I was not
I ittija – You were not
Aye/imbe ittije – He was not
Al/mOlu ittijal – She was not
au/undu ittiji – It was not
nama/enkulu ittija – We were not
Ir/nikulu ittijar – You were not
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr ittijer – They were not
undekulu/aikulu ittija – They were not
  
Past Gerund Perfect + negative form of ‘uppuni/ippuni’ in simple past tense

malt’d + ittijae = malt’dittijae (also pronounced ‘maltittijae’)  – I had not made (Kannada: nAnu mADiralilla)

yAn malt'dittijae – I had not made
I malt'dittija – You had not made
Aye/imbe malt'dittije – He had not made
Al/mOlu malt'dittijal – She had not made
au/undu malt'dittiji – It had not made
nama/enkulu malt'dittija – We had not made
Ir/nikulu malt'dittijar – You had not made
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr malt'dittijer – They had not made
undekulu/aikulu malt'dittija – They had not made

pO (pOpini) – To go

pOd + ittijae = pOdittijae – I had not gone

yAn pOdittijae – I had not gone
I pOdittija – You had not gone
Aye/imbe pOdittije – He had not gone
Al/mOlu pOdittijal – She had not gone
au/undu pOdittiji – It had not gone
nama/enkulu pOdittija – We had not gone
Ir/nikulu pOdittijar – You had not gone
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr pOdittijer – They had not gone
undekulu/aikulu pOdittija – They had not gone

Examples:

Tulu: I eNDa pandittija
English: You had not told me
Kannada: nInu nanage hELiralilla

Tulu: yAn aDe pOdittijae
English: I had not gone there
Kannada: nAnu allige hOgiralilla

Tulu: kelavu dOstilu battittijer
English: Some friend had not come
Kannada: kelavu snEhitaru bandiralilla

Tulu: Aye ninan tUdittije
English: He had not seen you
Kannada: avanu ninnannu nODiralilla

Tulu: Ayeg kODae ushAr ittiji, anchAd shAleg pOdittije
English: He was not feeling well yesterday, so he had not gone to school
Kannada: avanige ninne hushAr iralilla, hAgAgi shAlege hOgiralilla

Tulu: akulu enan pArTig lett’dittijer, anchAd yAn pOdittijae 
English: They had not invited me to the party, so I had not gone
Kannada: avaru nannannu pArTige karediralilla, hAgAgi nAnu hOgiralilla

Interrogative forms:

As you know, we have to add ‘a’ or ‘na’ at the end to make interrogative form of sentences in Tulu. When speaking with elders/strangers with respect, you can add ‘e’ or ‘ne’ instead of ‘a’ or ‘na’ at the end.

Tulu: yAn niNDa suruve pandittijena?
English: Hadn’t I told you before?
Kannada: nAnu ninage modale hELiralilva?’

Tulu: Aye nikk tikk'dittena?
English: Had he met you?
Kannada: avanu ninage sikkiddana?

Tulu: pOyina varsa battittijare?
English: Hadn’t you come last year?
Kannada: hOda varsha bandiralillava?

Tulu: murani barsa battitt’NDa?
English: Had it rained day before yesterday?
Kannada: monne maLe banditta?

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

If you need more sentences translated in Tulu, please leave a comment. If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu J

See you next week!


solmelu!

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