Friday, 17 June 2016

Tulu Lesson 21: Imperative Mood

namaskAra! Welcome back!

So far we have finished 20 lessons in Tulu. I hope you are enjoying the lessons. If you have any feedbacks, please let me know. Today we are going to learn imperative forms in Tulu. The imperative mood is verb form that generally used to make a command or a request. Look at these sentences in English:

Go!
Be quit!
Let us go!
Let him do!

Now we are going to learn these types of sentences in Tulu.

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Let us look at all of the imperative forms used in Tulu:


Singular
Plural
Pronoun
Ending
Example: malpu
Pronoun
Ending
Example: malpu
First Person
yAn
-
-
nama
ka/ga
malpuga
Second Person
I
la / nothing
malpula / malpu
nikulu/Ir
le
malpule
Third Person
Masc.
Aye/imbe
aD
malpaD
akulu/Ar/mokulu/mEr
aD
malpaD
Fem.
Al/mOlu
aD
malpaD
Neut.
au/undu
aD
malpaD
aikulu/undekulu
aD
malpaD

First Person Imperative forms:

First person plural imperatives are used mainly for suggesting an action to be performed together by the speaker and the listener.  

Tulu does not have imperative forms for the first person singular ‘yAn’.

As we know, we have two pronouns for first person plural in Tulu, they are:
  1. nama - the person to whom spoken is also included
  2. enkulu - the person to whom spoken is not included

Only ‘nama’ has imperative form in Tulu.

To make imperative form for the pronoun ‘nama’, we have to add ‘ka/ga’ to root verbs. (‘ka’ for Class A verbs and ‘ga’ for Class B verbs)

Root verb + ka/ga

malpu + ga >>> malpuga – Let us do (Kannda: mADONa)
bar + ka >>> barka – Let us come (Kannada: barONa)
uN + ka >>> uNka – Let us have lunch/dinner (Kannada: uTa mADONa)
kullu + ga >>> kulluga – Let us sit (Kannada: kuLitukoLLONa)
telipu + ga >>> telipuga Let us smile/laugh (Kannada: nagONa)
kEN + ga >>> kENga – Let us ask/hear (Kannada: kELONa)
paN + ka >>> paNka – Let us say (Kannada: hELONa)
tU + ka >>> tUka – Let us see (Kannada: nODONa)
tUpA + ga >>> tUpAga – Let us show (Kannada: tOrisONa)
pO + ka >>> pOka or pOyi – Let us go (Kannada: hOGONa)

The verb ‘pO’ is irregular. The imperative form ‘pOyi’ is used more frequently compared to ‘pOka’.

Examples:

Tulu: nama ellae tikk’ga
English: Let us meet tomorrow
Kannada: nAvu nALe sigONa

Tulu: nama kuDlag pOyi
English: Let us go to Mangalore
Kannada: nAvu mangaLUrige hOgONa

Tulu: dAda ApuNDu tUka
English: Let us see what will happen
Kannada: Enu Agtade nODONa

Tulu: nama kushiT uppuga
English: Let us be happy
Kannada: nAvu khushiyinda irONA

Tulu: ini naDatondu pOyi
English: Let us go walking today
Kannada: ivattu naDedukoNDu hOgONa

Tulu: nama tulu kalpuga
English: Let us learn Tulu
Kannada: nAvu tuLu kaliyONa

Tulu: nama ini movie’g pOya?
English: Let’s go to movie today?
Kannada: nAvu ivattu movie’ge hOgONva?

Tulu: chA parkana, boDcha?
English: Let us have tea or not?
Kannada: chaha kuDiyONva, bEDva?

There is no negative imperative form for the first persons in Tulu, but this can be expressed by using the negative gerund with imperative forms of the verb ‘uppu’.

Examples:

Tulu: nama pOvandae uppuga
English: Let us not go
Kannda: nAvu hOgadirONa

Tulu: nama manipande uppuga
English: Let us not talk
Kannda: nAvu summane (mAtannADade) irONa

Tulu: nama dAla tiNandae uppuga
English: Let us not eat anything
Kannada: nAvu EnU tinnadirONa

Second Person Imperative forms:


Second Person imperatives are used for ordering, requesting or advising the listener to do something and to express a wish.

Usually the root verb itself is the imperative form for the second person singular. We can add the suffix ‘la’ optionally to the root verb. However, adding  the suffix ‘la’ is mandatory for the verbs with single syllable like tU, dI, mI, rA, A, sai (except pO) to make second person singular imperative forms.   

Root verb + la

malpu or malpula - Come (Kannada: mADu)
kEN or kENla - Hear/Ask/Listen (Kannada: kELu)
paN or paNla - Tell/Say (Kannada: hELu)
pO or pOla - Go (Kannada: hOgu)
tUla – See/Look (Kannada: nODu)
Ala – Become (Kannada: Agu)
rAla – Fly (Kannada: hAru)
dIla – Keep or Place (Kannada: iDu)

The verb ‘bar’ is irregular.

bar + la >>> balla >>> bala – Come (Kannada: bA)

To make second person plural imperative forms, the suffix ‘le’ is added to root verbs.   

Root verb + le

bar + le >>> balle >>> bale – Come (Kannada: banni)
kENle - Hear/Ask/Listen (Kannada: kELi)
paNle - Tell/Say (Kannada: hELi)
pOle - Go (Kannada: hOgi)
tUle – See/Look (Kannada: nODi)
Ale – Become (Kannada: Agi)
rAle – Fly (Kannada: hAri)
dIle – Keep or Place (Kannada: iDi)

Examples:

Tulu: rAma! iDe bala
English: Rama! Come here
Kannada: rAma! illi bA

Tulu: pENTeg pOdu ari kanala
English: Go to the bazaar and bring some rice
Kannada: pETege hOgi akki koNDu bA

Tulu: onji lOTae nIr koru
English: Give me a glass of water
Kannada: ondu lOTa nIru koDu

Tulu: satya paN
English: Tell the truth
Kannada: satya hELu

Tulu: sAleg pO
English: Go to school
Kannada: shAlege hOgu

Tulu: jAgrateD uppula
English: Be Careful
Kannada: jAgrateyinda iru

Tulu: ninna bElae malpu
English: Do your work
Kannda: ninna kelasa mADu

Tulu: posa angi dettoNDana? enk tUpAv (tOjAv)
English: Did you buy a new dress? Show it to me
Kannada: hosa angi takoNDeya? nanage tOrisu

Tulu: bAlen jeppAla
English: Make the baby to sleep
Kannada: maguvannu malagisu

Tulu: enan tUla
English: Look at me
Kannda: nannannu nODu

Tulu: nIr parle
English: Drink some water
Kannda: nIru kuDIri

Tulu: aven tirt dIle
English: Put that down
Kannada: adannu keLage iDi

Tulu: Ayen leppule
English: Call him
Kannda: avanannu karIri

Tulu: bAkil deppule
English: Open the door
Kannda: bAgilu tegIri

Tulu: manipande kullule
English: Sit Quietly
Kannada: summane kuLitukoLLi

Tulu: dayadId enan artha maltoNle
English: Please try to understand me
Kannada: dayaviTTu nannannu artha mADikoLLi

Tulu: enna bag’n vantae pattoNle
English: Hold my bag for a moment
Kannada: nanna bag’annu swalpa hiDidukoLLi

Tulu: nUdu varsha kushiT bad’k’le
English: May you live 100 years happily
Kannada: nUru varsha kushiyinda bALi

Imperative forms can be used in a variety of ways depending on the persons you are addressing.

bala / pO (pOla) – Come / Go (Kannda: bA / hOgu): Informal or singular – can be used for both male and female friends/younger persons

balaya / pOya - Come / Go (Kannada: bAra / hOga): Informal or singular – can be used for both male and female friends/younger persons

balambae / pOmbae – Come / Go (Kannada: bAro / hOgo): Informal or singular – can be used for male friends/younger persons – Don’t use this for any one unless your close friend
   
balade / pOde - Come / Go (Kannada: bAre / hOge): informal or singular – can be used for female friends/younger persons – Don’t use this for any one unless your close friend
  
bale / pOle – Come / Go (Kannada: banni / hOgi): Plural or to show respect to a person – can be used for both male and female elder persons/strangers

baleye / pOleye – Come / Go (Kannada: banniri / hOgiri): To show respect to a person – can be used for both male and female elders/strangers

To make negative imperative forms for the second persons, add the suffix ‘aDa’ (singular) or ‘aDe’ (plural) to root verbs.

Examples:

Tulu: iDe baraDa
English: Don’t come here
Kannada: illi barabEDa

Tulu: sullu paNaDa
English: Don’t tell a lie
Kannada: suLLu hELbEDa

Tulu: enan tUvaDa
English: Don’t look at me
Kannda: nannannu nODabEDa

Tulu: amasara malpaDe
English: Don’t hurry
Kannada: avasara mADbEDi

Tulu: Ayen leppaDe
English: Don’t call him
Kannda: avanannu karibEDi

Tulu: enan madapaDe
English: Don’t forget me
Kannada: nannannu maribEDi

Also, there is another negative imperative form for the second persons that can be formed by adding the suffix ‘oDchi’ (for both singular and plural) which is derived from modal verb ‘boDchi’ (Don’t want/Don’t need)

Tulu: aDe pOvoDchi
English: Don’t go there
Kannada: alli hOgbEDa

Tulu: enan tUvoDchi
English: Don’t look at me
Kannad: nannannu nODbEDa

Tulu: eNDa pAteroDchi
English: Don’t talk with me
Kannada: nannondige mAtannADabEDa

Tulu: pODyoDchi
English: Don’t be scared
Kannda: hedarbEDa

Third Person Imperative forms:

Third person imperatives are used to suggest or order that third parties be permitted to do something and to express a wish.

To make third person imperative forms (both singular and plural), the suffix ‘aD’ is added to root verbs.

Root verb + aD

bar + aD >>> baraD – Let it/him/her/them come (Kannada: barali)
kENaD – Let it/him/her/them hear/ask (Kannada: kELali)
tiNaD - Let it/him/her/them eat (Kannada: tinnali)
pOvaD - Let it/him/her/them go (Kannada: hOgali)
AvaD - Let it/him/her/them be/become (Kannada: Agali)
uppaD - Let it/him/her/them be (Kannada: irali)

Tulu: anchene AvaD
English: Let it be so
Kannada: hAgE Agali

Tulu: Aye ellae baraD
English: Let him come tomorrow
Kannada: avanu nAle barali

Tulu: Al onas malpaD
English: Let her eat her lunch/dinner
Kannada: avaLu UTa mADali

Tulu: I bAjana dekk’la, Aye kuNTu ardaD
English: You wash the dishes, let him wash the clothes.
Kannada: nInu pAtre toLi, avanu baTTe ogeyali

Tulu: akulu bAlen tUvoNaD
English: Let them take care of the baby
Kannada: avaru maguvannu nODikoLLali

Tulu: Aye pidai kApaD
English: Let him wait outside
Kannada: avanu horage kAyali

Tulu: Aye ittae pOvaDa?
English: Let him go now?
Kannada: avanu Iga hOgala?

Tulu: Ar tIrmAna malpaD
English: Let him/her decide
Kannada: avaru tIrmAna mADali

Tulu: nikk dEver eDDae malpaD
English: May God bless you
Kannada: ninage dEvaru oLLedu mADali

Tulu: mAta janokulu kushiT uppaD
English: May all the people be happy
Kannada: ellA janaru kushiyinda irali

There is no negative imperative form for the third persons in Tulu, but this can be expressed by using the negative gerund with imperative forms of the verb ‘uppu’.

Tulu: Aye barandae uppaD
English: Let him not come
Kannada: avanu barade irali

Tulu: akulu manipandae uppaD
English: Let them not speak (be quiet)
Kannada: avaru summane (mAtannADade) irali

Tulu: ancha Avandae uppaD
English: Let it not be so
Kannada: hAge Agadirali

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See you next week!


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