Saturday, 4 June 2016

Tulu Lesson 19: Adjectives Part 2 - Uses of Participles

namaskAra! Welcome back!

Today we are going to learn another verbal which is called Participles or verbal adjectives. There are 4 forms: Present, Simple Past, Past Perfect and Negative.

learn tulu

Present participle: suffix ‘u’ and ‘pi’

Suffix ‘u’ is added to Class B root verbs and suffix ‘pi’ is added to Class A root verbs.

Examples:

Class A:

bar + pi >> barpi – Coming
tiN + pi >> tiNpi – Eating
pO + pi >>> pOpi – Going
paN + pi >>> paNpi - telling/saying

Class B:

kEN + u >>> kEnu – hearing/asking
malpu + u >>> malpu – doing
bUru + u >>> bUru – falling
pAD + u >>> pADu - putting / wearing

Past participle (Simple): suffix ‘i’

Suffix ‘i’ is added to Simple Past verb stem:

batt + i >>>> batti – came / was come
malt + i >>> malti – did / was done
tU(i) + i >>> tUyi –  saw / was seen
kEND + i >>> kENDi – heard or asked / was heard/asked
paND + i >>> paNDi – told or said / was told/said
jett + i >>> jetti – slept / was slept
bUr(i) + i >>> bUri – fell / was fallen
itt + i >>> itti – was / was been

Past participle (Perfect): Past Gerund + suffix ‘i’

Suffix ‘i’ is added to Past Gerund (Perfect):

Examples:

batt’d + i >>> batt’di >>> baidi – has come
malt’d + i >>> malt’di – has done
tUd + i >>> tUti – has seen
kEnd + i >>>  kEndi – has heard/asked
pand + i >>> panti – has told/said
jett’d + i >>> jett’di >>> jeidi – has slept
bUrd + i >>> bUrdi – has fallen
itt’d + i >>> itt’di  - has been
tind + i >>> tinti – has eaten

Negative participle: suffix ‘andi’

Suffix ‘andi’ is added to root verb.

barandi – has not come
malpandi – has not done
pOvandi –has not gone
tiNandi –has not eaten
uppandi –has not been
ijjandi (or dAnti) – has not been

The participles in Tulu are mainly used as adjectives or in relative clauses. The Genitive case suffix ‘na’ can be optionally added.

Examples:

Tulu: barpi vAra / barpina vAra
Enlish: Coming week or Next Week
Kannada: baruva vAra

Tulu: parappu nIr / parappuna nIr
English: Flowing water
Kannada: hariyuva nIru

Tulu: parpi nIr / parpina nIr
English: Drinking water
Kannada: kuDiyuva nIru

Tulu: bIju gAli / bIjuna gAli
English: Blowing wind
Kannada: bIsuva gALi

Tulu: pOyi tingolu / pOyina tinglu
English: The month that went or last month 
Kannada: hOda tingaLu

Tulu: malti bElae / maltina bElae
English: The work that was done
Kannada: mADida kelasa

Tulu: paNDi pAtera / paNDina pAtera
English: The speech that was spoken or promise that was made
Kannada: ADida mAtu

Tulu: tUyi kaNN / tUyina kaNN
English: The eyes that saw
Kannada: nODida kaNNu

Tulu: baidi binner / baidina binner
English: The guests who have come
Kannada: bandiruva neNTaru

Tulu: tUti jana / tUtina jana
English: The people who have seen
Kannada: nODiruva jana

Tulu: kalt’di bAsae / kalt’dina bAsae
English: The language that has been learned / The learned language
Kannada: kalitiruva bAshe

Tulu: paridi angi / paridina angi
English: The shirt that has been torn / The torn shirt
Kannada: harida angi

Tulu: tUvandi Uru / tUvandina Uru
English: The village that is not seen
Kannada: nODada Uru

Tulu: bUrandi mara / bUrandina mara
English: The tree that has not fallen

Tulu: yAn barpi vAra barpae
English: I will come next week
Kannada: nAnu baruva vAra bartEne

Tulu: undu parpina nIra?
English: Is it drinking water?
Kannada: idu kuDiyuva nIra?

Tulu: Ir korpina kAs enk yAvuji
English: The money that you give is not enough for me
Kannada: nIvu koDuva duDDu nanage sAkAguvudilla

Tulu: yAn malpuna bElae mast banga uNDu
English: The work I do is very difficult.
Kannada: nAnu mADuva kelasa tumbA kashTa ide

Tulu: yAn paNDi pAtera tatt’d naDapayae
English: I will never break the promise I made.
Kannada: nAnu ADida (koTTa) mAtu tappi naDeyenu

Tulu: nama puTTudu balattina Uru
English: The village where we born and grew up
Kannada: nAvu huTTi beLeda Uru

Tulu: tulu panpi bAsae
English: A language called Tulu
Kannada: tuLu ennuvavbAshe

Tulu: nIr itti guvel  
English: A well which has water
Kannada: nIru iruva bAvi

Tulu: nIr dAnti guvel
English: A well which doesn’t have water
Kannada: nIru illada bAvi

Tulu: gati dAnti naramAni
English: A helpless man
Kannada: gati illada manushya

Tulu: Avandi bElae
English: Work that was not done
Kannada: Agada kelasa

Tulu: nama batti sAdi
English: The way by which we came
Kannda: nAvu banda dAri

Tulu: yAn uppuna ill
English: The house in which I reside
Kannda: nAnu iruva mane


Like adjectives, participles can also be used with pronouns to indicate gender and number.

tUpinAyae – He who sees (Kannada: nODuvavanu)
pOyinAl – She who went (Kannada: hOdavaLu)
partinakulu – They who have drunken (Kannada: kuDidiruvavaru)
barandinAr – He/She who has not come (Kannada: baradavaru)
malpunau – That which does
(Kannada: mADuvadu)

Tulu: kAs ittinAye / kAs uppunAye
English: The one who has money
Kannada: duDDiruvavanu

Tulu: kAs dAntinAye
English: The one who doesn't have money
Kannada: duDDilladavanu

Tulu: I maltinau sari att
English: What you did is not right
Kannada: nInu mADiddu sari alla

Tulu: ini barandinakulu ellae baruver
English: Those who did not come today may come tomorrow
Kannada: ivattu baradavaru nALe bandAru

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

That is all for today. If you have any questions, feel free to comment. See you next week!

solmelu!


No comments:

Post a Comment