Friday, 25 March 2016

Tulu Lesson 10: Negative and Interrogative in Simple Past Tense

namaskAra! mAterla encha ullar? soukhyana?

Today we are going to learn negative and interrogative form of sentences in Past Tense. You already know verb conjugation in Simple Past tense. To make it negative just change the personal endings.

 Personal endings for negative form of sentences in Simple Past tense:

Singular
Plural
Pronoun
Ending
Example: pO
Pronoun
Ending
Example: pO
First Person
yAn
ijae
pOyijae
nama/enkulu
ija
pOyija
Second Person
I
ija
pOyija
nikulu/Ir
ijar
pOyijar
Third Person
Masc.
Aye/imbe
ije
pOyije
akulu/Ar/mokulu/mEr
ijer
pOyijer
Fem.
Al/mOlu
ijal
pOyijal
Neut.
au/undu
iji
pOyiji
aikulu/undekulu
ija
pOyija

Note: You may see some people use ‘iji’ ending for first person singular, ‘yAn pOyiji’ instead of ‘yAn pOyijae’ though grammatically it is wrong.

learn tulu

1. Verbs ending in ‘pu’

Example: jeppu (jeppuni) – To sleep (Kannada: malaguvudu)

jeppu >>> jett + personal ending = jettijae - I did not sleep (Kannada: nAnu malagalilla)

yAn jettijae – I did not sleep
I jettija – You did not sleep
Aye/imbe jettije – He did not sleep
Al/mOlu jettijal – She did not sleep
au/undu jettiji – It did not sleep
nama/enkulu jettija – We did not sleep
Ir/nikulu jettijar – You did not sleep
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr jettijer – They did not sleep
undekulu/aikulu jettija – They did not sleep

2. Verbs ending in ‘N’

Example: tiN (tiNpini) – To eat (Kannada: tinnuvudu)

tiN + D + personal ending = tiNDijae - I did not eat (Kannada: nAnu tinnalilla)

yAn tiNDijae – I did not eat
I tiNDija – You did not eat
Aye/imbe tiNDije – He did not eat
Al/mOlu tiNDijal – She did not eat
au/undu tiNDiji – It did not eat
nama/enkulu tiNDija – We did not eat
Ir/nikulu tiNDijar – You did not eat
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr tiNDijer – They did not eat
undekulu/aikulu tiNDija – They did not eat

3. All other verbs.

Example: Odu (Oduni) – To read (Kannada: Oduvudu)

Odu + i + personal ending = Odijae – I did not read (Kannada: nAnu Odalilla)

yAn Odijae – I did not read
I Odija – You did not read
Aye/imbe Odije – He did not read
Al/mOlu Odijal – She did not read
au/undu Odiji – It did not read
nama/enkulu Odija – We did not read
Ir/nikulu Odijar – You did not read
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr Odijer – They did not read
undekulu/aikulu Odija – They did not read

The verbs ‘bar’ (barpini – To come), ‘sai’ (saipini – To die) and ‘bey’ (beypini – To be cooked/boiled) are irregular.

bar + t + personal ending – battijae = I did not come (Kannada: nAnu baralilla)
sai + t + personal ending – saitijae = I did not die (Kannada: nAnu sAyalilla)
bey + t + personal ending – beytiji = It is not cooked / boiled (Kannada: adu/idu bEyalilla)

A (Apini) – To become/happen (Kannada: Aguvudu)

A + i + personal ending = Ayijae- I did not become (Kannada: nAnu Agalilla)

yAn Ayijae – I did not become
I Ayija – You did not become
Aye/imbe Ayije – He did not become
Al/mOlu Ayijal – She did not become
au/undu Ayiji – It did not become /It did not happen/
nama/enkulu Ayija – We did not become
Ir/nikulu Ayijar – You did not become
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr Ayijer – They did not become
undekulu/aikulu Ayija – They did not become

uppu/ippu (uppuni/ippuni) – To be (Kannada: iruvudu)

ippu >>> itt + personal ending = ittijae – I was not (Kannada: nAnu iralilla)

yAn ittijae – I was not
I ittija – You were not
Aye/imbe ittije – He was not
Al/mOlu ittijal – She was not
au/undu ittiji – It was not
nama/enkulu ittija – We were not
Ir/nikulu ittijar – You were not
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr ittijer – They were not
undekulu/aikulu ittija – They were not

Example sentences:

Tulu: barsa battiji
English: It did not rain
Kannada: maLe baralilla

Tulu: yAn ninan tUyijae
English: It did not see you
Kannada: nAnu ninnannu nODalilla

Tulu: akulu eNDa pAterijer
English: They did not speak with me
Kannada: avaru nannalli mAtannADalilla

Tulu: enna dOsti enan lettije
English: My friend did not call me
Kannada: nanna geLeya nannannu kareyalilla

Tulu: jayante illaD ittije
English: Jayanth was not at home
Kannada: jayanta maneyalli iralilla

Tulu: Aye uNDije / Aye onas maltije
English: He did not have lunch/dinner
Kannada: avanu UTa mADalilla

Tulu: niNDa kAs ittiji
English: You did not have money
Kannada: ninnalli duDDu iralilla


Interrogative in Simple Past:

I hope you already know how to make interrogative form of sentences in Tulu.

Tulu: onas ANDa? / uNDara?
English: Had your lunch/dinner?
Kannada: UTa Ayta?

Tulu: AND, irena ANDe? (giving respect to the listener)
English: Yes, what about you?
Kannada: Aytu, nimdu Ayta?

Tulu: chA pariyare? (giving respect to the listener)
English: Had your tea?
Kannada: chahA kuDidra?

Tulu: jayante bEleg pOyena?
English: Did Jayanth go to work?
Kannada: jayanta kelasakke hOdana?

Tulu: I aleDa kENDana?
English: Did you ask her?
Kannada: nInu avalalli kELidiya?

Tulu: Aye ninna purse kaNDiyena?
English: Did he steal your purse?
Kannada: avanu ninna purse kaddana?

Tulu: I ninna dOstyallen madimeg lettana?
English: Did you call (invite) your friends for the wedding?
Kannada: nInu ninna geLeyarannu maduvege karediya?

Tulu: Ar nikk phone maltijera?
English: Didn’t he/she call you?
Kannada: avaru ninge phone mADalilva?

Tulu: pEr kanattijana?
English: Didn’t you bring milk?
Kannada: nInu hAlu taralilva?

Tulu: chAkk sakkarae pADijare?
English: Didn’t you add sugar to tea?
Kannada: nIvu chahAge sakkare hAkalilva?

Tulu: nela aDtana?
English: Did you sweep the floor?
Kannada: nela guDisidya?

Tulu: nela ochchijana?
English: Didn’t you wipe the floor?
Kannada: nInu nela oresalillava?

Tulu: kuNTu ardiyala?
English: Did she wash the clothes?
Kannada: baTTe ogedaLa?

Tulu: bAjana dekkijena?
English: Didn’t he wash the dishes?
Kannada: avanu pAtre toLilillava?

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

See you next week!


solmelu!

Friday, 18 March 2016

Tulu Lesson 9: Simple Past Tense, Compound Verbs

namaskAra! encha ullar?

So far, we have learned simple present and future tense in Tulu. Today we are going to learn Simple Past Tense. Simple Past Tense is used to talk about a completed action in a time before now. The time of the action can be in the recent past or the distant past. Before going to Simple Past, let us learn few compound verbs.

Example: mOkae malpuni – To love

As you see in the above example, we have two words in Tulu for one English word. This is what we call Compound verbs. Though second word is always a verb, the first word can be a noun, an adjective or a past adverbial participle. To make verb conjugation, we can apply the same rule here. In all cases, we need to change the second word, not the first one.

mOkae malpuvae – I love
mOkae malpae – I will probably love

Some of the compound verbs we use in daily conversation:

mApu malpuni  (mApu malpu) – To forgive
kOpa malpuni (kOpa malpu) – To get angry
bElae malpuni (bElae malpu) – To work
upadra malpuni/upadra korpini – To disturb someone
kebi korpini (kebi koru) – To listen
nAD pattuni (nAD patt) – To find out/discover
beri pattuni (beri patt) – To chase
pagae kaTTuni – (pagae kaTT) – To seek revenge
kana kaTTuni (kana kaTT) – To dream
madimae Apini (madimae A) – To marry
peTT pADuni (peTT pAD) - To beat
dakk’d pADuni (dakk’d pAD) - To lose something  
dakk’d pOpini (dakk’d pO) - To be lost

kondarpini (kondu + barpini) – To bring
kondOpini (kondu + pOpini) – To take away/ To take something to another place

‘kondu’ is the past adverbial participle of  the auxiliary verb ‘koNu’ (koNuni – To hold) which is used in forming compound verbs and also in reflexive verbs.

In common dialect of Tulu, these verbs are modified as follows:
kondarpini (kondar) >>> kanapini (kana) – To bring
kondOpini (kondO) >>> konopini (kono) - To take away/ To take something to another place

The verb ‘kana’/‘kondar’ is conjugated same as ‘bar’ and the verb ‘kono’/‘kondO’ is conjugated as ‘pO’.

kondarpae or kanapae – I bring / I will bring
kondOpae or konopae – I take it away / I will take it away

kondaruvae or kanavae – I will probably bring
kondOvae or konovae – I will probably take it away

kondarpujae or kanapujae - I do not bring / I will not bring
kondOpujae or konopujae – I do not take it away / I will not take it away

kondarayae or kanayae – I will probably not bring
kondOvayae or konovayae – I will probably not take it away
  
Alright! Coming back to Simple Past. There are three conjugations in Simple Past. In Simple Present and Future tense, we had different conjugations for Class A and Class B verbs.  However, in Simple Past we have three groups:
1. Verbs ending in ‘pu’
2. Verbs ending in ‘N’
3. All other verbs.

learn tulu

Personal endings in Simple Past Tense are same as Simple Present Tense. Third person neuter singular is exception.


Singular
Plural
Pronoun
Ending
Example: pO
Pronoun
Ending
Example: pO
First Person
yAn
ae
pOyae
nama/enkulu
a
pOya
Second Person
I
a
pOya
nikulu/Ir
ar
pOyar
Third Person
Masc.
Aye/imbe
e
pOye
akulu/Ar/mokulu/mEr
er
pOyer
Fem.
Al/mOlu
al
pOyal
Neut.
au/undu
ND
pOND
aikulu/undekulu
a
pOya

1. Verbs ending in ‘pu’ 

To conjugate verbs ending in ‘pu’ in Simple Past Tense, replace ‘pu’ with ‘t’ and then add personal ending.

Example: malpu (malpuni) – To do

malpu >>> malt + personal ending = maltae - I did

yAn maltae – I did
I malta – You did
Aye/imbe malte – He did
Al/mOlu maltal – She did
au/undu malt’ND – It did
nama/enkulu malta – We did
Ir/nikulu maltar – You did
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr malter – They did
undekulu/aikulu malta – They did

2. Verbs ending in ‘N’

To conjugate verbs ending in ‘N’ in Simple Past Tense, add ‘D’ sound to root verb and then add personal ending.

Root verb + D + personal ending

Example: paN (paNpini) – To tell/say

paN + D + personal ending = paNDae - I told / I said

yAn paNDae – I said
I paNDa – You said
Aye/imbe paNDe – He said
Al/mOlu paNDal – She said
au/undu paND – It said (Additional ‘D’ sound is not added here, paN + ND = paN’ND, but usually pronounced as ‘paND’)
nama/enkulu paNDa – We said
Ir/nikulu paNDar – You said
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr paNDer – They said
undekulu/aikulu paNDa – They said

This form is used in common Tulu. However, in some other dialects, verbs ending in ‘N’ also conjugated same as ‘All other verbs’.

3. All other verbs.

To conjugate verbs in Simple Past Tense, add ‘i’ sound to root verb and then add personal ending.

Root verb + i + personal ending

Example: kor (korpini) – To give

kor + i + personal ending = koriyae – I gave

yAn koriyae – I gave
I koriya – You gave
Aye/imbe koriye – He gave
Al/mOlu koriyal – She gave
au/undu kor’ND – It gave ( ‘i’ sound is not added here, kor + ND = kor’ND)
nama/enkulu koriya – We gave
Ir/nikulu koriyar – You gave
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr koriyer – They gave
undekulu/aikulu koriya – They gave

The verbs ‘bar’ (barpini – To come), ‘sai’ (saipini – To die) and ‘bey’ (beypini – To be cooked/boiled) are irregular. These verbs are conjugated in Simple Past Tense by adding ‘t’ sound to root verb. 

bar + t + personal ending – battae = I came
sai + t + personal ending – saitae = I died
bey + t + personal ending – beyt’ND = It is cooked / boiled

yAn battae – I came
I batta – You came
Aye/imbe batte – He came
Al/mOlu battal – She came
au/undu batt’ND – It came
nama/enkulu batta – We came
Ir/nikulu battar – You came
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr batter – They came
undekulu/aikulu batta – They came

yAn saitae – I died
I saita – You died
Aye/imbe saite – He died
Al/mOlu saital – She died
au/undu sait’ND – It died
nama/enkulu saita – We died
Ir/nikulu saitar – You died
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr saiter – They died
undekulu/aikulu saita – They died

Let us conjugate more verbs in Simple Tense.

kApu (kApuni) – To wait

yAn kAtae – I waited
I kAta – You waited
Aye/imbe kAte – He waited
Al/mOlu kAtal – She waited
au/undu kAt’ND – It waited
nama/enkulu kAta – We waited
Ir/nikulu kAtar – You waited
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kAter – They waited
undekulu/aikulu kAta – They waited

leppu (leppuni) – To call/invite

yAn lettae – I called
I letta – You called
Aye/imbe lette – He called
Al/mOlu lettal – She called
au/undu lett’ND – It called
nama/enkulu letta – We called
Ir/nikulu lettar – You called
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr letter – They called
undekulu/aikulu letta – They called

tU (tUpini) – To see

yAn tUyae – I saw
I tUya – You saw
Aye/imbe tUye – He saw
Al/mOlu tUyal – She saw
au/undu tUND – It saw
nama/enkulu tUya – We saw
Ir/nikulu tUyar – You saw
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr tUyer – They saw
undekulu/aikulu tUya – They saw

buDu (buDpini) – To leave

yAn buDiyae – I left
I buDiya – You left
Aye/imbe buDiye – He left
Al/mOlu buDiyal – She left
au/undu buD’ND – It left
nama/enkulu buDiya – We left
Ir/nikulu buDiyar – You left
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr buDiyer – They left
undekulu/aikulu buDiya – They left

uN (uNpini) - To eat / To have lunch/dinner

yAn uNDae – I had lunch/dinner
I uNDa – You had lunch/dinner
Aye/imbe uNDe – He had lunch/dinner
Al/mOlu uNDal – She had lunch/dinner
au/undu uND – It had lunch/dinner (uN’ND usually pronounced as uND)
nama/enkulu uNDa – We had lunch/dinner
Ir/nikulu uNDar – You had lunch/dinner
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr uNDer – They had lunch/dinner
undekulu/aikulu uNDa – They had lunch/dinner

kEN (kENuni) To hear/listen/ask

yAn kENDae – I asked
I kENDa – You asked
Aye/imbe kENDe – He asked
Al/mOlu kENDal – She asked
au/undu kEND – It asked (kEN’ND usually pronounced as kEND)
nama/enkulu kENDa – We asked
Ir/nikulu kENDar – You asked
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kENDer – They asked
undekulu/aikulu kENDa – They asked

A (Apini) – To become/happen

yAn Ayae – I became
I Aya – You became
Aye/imbe Aye – He became
Al/mOlu Ayal – She became
au/undu AND – It became/It happened/It’s done/Finished
nama/enkulu Aya – We became
Ir/nikulu Ayar – You became
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr Ayer – They became
undekulu/aikulu Aya – They became

uppu/ippu (uppuni/ippuni) – To be

yAn ittae – I was
I itta – You were
Aye/imbe itte – He was
Al/mOlu ittal – She was
au/undu itt’ND – It was
nama/enkulu itta – We were
Ir/nikulu ittar – You were
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr itter – They were
undekulu/aikulu itta – They were

kana (kanapini) – To bring

This verb is derived from compound verb ‘kondu bar’. So, it is conjugated as ‘bar’

yAn kanattae – I brought
I kanatta – You brought
Aye/imbe kanatte – He brought
Al/mOlu kanattal – She brought
au/undu kanatt’ND – It brought
nama/enkulu kanatta – We brought
Ir/nikulu kanattar – You brought
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr kanatter – They brought
undekulu/aikulu kanatta – They brought

kono (konopini) – To take away

This verb is derived from compound verb ‘kondu pO’. So, it is conjugated as ‘pO’

yAn konoyae – I took it away
I konoya – You took it away
Aye/imbe konoye – He took it away
Al/mOlu konoyal – She took it away
au/undu konoND – It took it away
nama/enkulu konoya – We took it away
Ir/nikulu konoyar – You took it away
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr konoyer – They took it away
undekulu/aikulu konoya – They took it away


Example sentences:

Tulu: jOkulu sAleg pOyer
English:  Children went to school
Kannada: makkaLu shAlege hOdaru

Tulu: enklena illaDe binner batter
English:  Guests came to our house.
Kannada: namma manege neNTru bandru

Tulu: yAn onji gaNTae kAtae
English:  I waited for one hour.
Kannada: nAnu ondu gaNTe kAde

Tulu: yAn tulu kaltae
English:  I learnt Tulu
Kannada: nAnu tuLu kalite

Tulu: enna onas AND / yAn uNDae
English:  I had my lunch/dinner
Kannada: nanna UTa Aytu

Tulu: Aye illaD itte
English:  He was at home
Kannada: avanu maneyalli idda

Tulu: I kukku tiNDa
English:  You ate a mango.
Kannada: nInu mAvina haNNu tinde

Tulu: Ar enk kAkaji bareyer
English:  He/She wrote a letter to me.
Kannada: avaru nanage kAgada baredaru

Tulu: enkulu posa ill kaTTiya
English:  We build a new house
Kannada: nAvu hosa mane kaTTidevu

Tulu: alena ungila dakk’d pOND
English:  Her ring is lost
Kannada: avaLa ungura bisADi hOytu/kaLedu hoytu

Tulu: Al ungilan dakk’d pADiyal
English:  She lost the ring
Kannada: avaLu unguravannu bisADi hAkidaLu/kaLedu hAkidaLu

Tulu: I enan madata
English:  You forgot me
Kannada: nInu nannannu marete

Tulu: enkulu suden kaData
English:  We crossed the river
Kannada: nAvu nadiyannu dATidevu

Tulu: portu kant’ND / sUrya kant’ND
English:  The sun has set
Kannada: sUrya muLugitu

Tulu: mullu kant’ND
English:  Thorn pricked
Kannada: muLLu chuchchitu

Tulu: Ar mIn kanatter
English:  He/She brought fish
Kannada: avaru mInu tandaru

Tulu: Ar bAlen konoyer
English:  He/She took the child away
Kannada: avaru maguvannu koNDu hOdaru

Tulu: yAn bAkil pADiyae
English:  I closed the door
Kannada: nAnu bAgilu hAkide/muchchide

Tulu: yAn bAkil dettae
English:  I opened the door
Kannada: nAnu bAgilu terede

Tulu: Aye Doctor Aye
English:  He became a Doctor
Kannada: avanu Doctor Ada

Tulu: Ayeg bEjAr AND
English:  He felt bad
Kannada: avanige bEjAr aytu

Tulu: nikk kushi AND
English:  You felt happy
Kannada: ninage kushi Aytu

Tulu: enk kODae bElae itt’ND
English:  I had work yesterday
Kannada: nanage ninne kelasa ittu

Tulu: nuppu beyt’ND
English:  The rice is cooked
Kannada: anna benditu

New words:
binner – guests
kukku – mango
kAkaji – paper/a letter
posa – new
ungila – ring
portu – time
sUrya – sun
mullu - thorn
mIn – fish
bAkil – door
nuppu – rice (boiled)

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

See you next week!


solmelu!

Saturday, 12 March 2016

Tulu Lesson 8: Negative and Interrogative in Future Tense

Hello everyone! Welcome back!

Last week we have learnt how to conjugate verbs in Future tense. I hope you had no problem with that. Today we are going to learn negative and interrogative form of sentences in Future Tense.

To make negative form of personal endings in Future tense, we have to add ‘ay’ sound. Third person neuter singular is irregular.


Singular
Plural
Pronoun
Ending
Example: bar
Pronoun
Ending
Example: bar
First Person
yAn
ayae
barayae
nama/enkulu
aya
baraya
Second Person
I
aya
baraya
nikulu/Ir
ayar
barayar
Third Person
Masc.
Aye/imbe
aye
baraye
akulu/Ar/mokulu/mEr
ayer
barayer
Fem.
Al/mOlu
ayal
barayal
Neut.
au/undu
and
barand
aikulu/undekulu
aya
baraya

learn tulu

To conjugate verbs, we have to just add personal endings directly to root verbs without using any additional sounds in between. This is applicable for both Class A and Class B verbs. However, verbs ending with long vowels (like pO, dI, mI, A, tU, rA, sai) are exceptions. These verbs can be conjugated by adding additional ‘v’ sound in between root verb and personal ending.

Class A verb: bar (barpini) – To come
bar + ayae = barayae

yAn barayae – I will probably not come
I baraya – You will probably not come
Aye/imbe baraye – He will probably not come
Al/mOlu barayal – She will probably not come
au/undu barand – It will probably not come
nama/enkulu baraya – We will probably not come
Ir/nikulu barayar – You will probably not come
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr barayer – They will probably not come
undekulu/aikulu baraya – They will probably not come

Class A verb: pO (pOpini) – To go
pO + v + ayae = pOvayae

yAn pOvayae – I will probably not go
I pOvaya – You will probably not go
Aye/imbe pOvaye – He will probably not go
Al/mOlu pOvayal – She will probably not go
au/undu pOvand – It will probably not go
nama/enkulu pOvaya – We will probably not go
Ir/nikulu pOvayar – You will probably not go
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr pOvayer – They will probably not go
undekulu/aikulu pOvaya – They will probably not go

Class B verb: mAr (mAruni) – To sell
mAr + ayae = mArayae

yAn mArayae – I will probably not sell
I mAraya – You will probably not sell
Aye/imbe mAraye – He will probably not sell
Al/mOlu mArayal – She will probably not sell
au/undu mArand – It will probably not sell
nama/enkulu mAraya – We will probably not sell
Ir/nikulu mArayar – You will probably not sell
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr mArayer – They will probably not sell
undekulu/aikulu mAraya – They will probably not sell

Class B verb: malpu (malpuni) – To do
malpu + ayae = malpayae

yAn malpayae – I will probably not do
I malpaya – You will probably not do
Aye/imbe malpaye – He will probably not do
Al/mOlu malpayal – She will probably not do
au/undu malpand – It will probably not do
nama/enkulu malpaya – We will probably not do
Ir/nikulu malpayar – You will probably not do
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr malpayer – They will probably not do
undekulu/aikulu malpaya – They will probably not do

Class A verb: A (Apini - to become/happen)
A + v + ayae = Avayae

yAn Avayae – I will probably not become
I Avaya – You will probably not become
Aye/imbe Avaye – He will probably not become
Al/mOlu Avayal – She will probably not become
au/undu Avand – It will probably not become (It may not happen)
nama/enkulu Avaya – We will probably not become
Ir/nikulu Avayar – You will probably not become
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr Avayer – They will probably not become
undekulu/aikulu Avaya – They will probably not become

Class B: uppu (uppuni – to be)
uppu + ayae = uppayae

yAn uppayae – I will probably not be
I uppaya – You will probably not be
Aye/imbe uppaye – He will probably not be
Al/mOlu uppayal – She will probably not be
au/undu uppand – It will probably not be
nama/enkulu uppaya – We will probably not be
Ir/nikulu uppayar – You will probably not be
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr uppayer – They will probably not be
undekulu/aikulu uppaya – They will probably not be

Examples:

Tulu: ini barsa barand
English: It may not rain today.
Kannada: ivattu maLe baradu

Tulu: Aye illaD uppaye
English: He may not be at home
Kannada: avanu maneyalli iranu

Tulu: I eNDa pAteraya
English: You will probably not speak with me.
Kannada: nInu nannalli mAtannADe

Tulu: Al Ayen madimae Avayal
English: She will probably not marry him
Kannada: avalu avanannu maduve AgaLu

Tulu: patteDd jAsti jana uppayer
English: There may not be more than 10 people.
Kannada: hattakkinta jAsti jana iraru

Tulu: Ar ninan mApu malpayer
English: He will probably not forgive you.
Kannada: avaru ninnannu kshamisaru

Tulu: akleg mUlu eDDae Avand
English: They may not feel comfortable here.
Kannada: avarige illi sari Agadu

Tulu: nikk kushi Avand
English: You may not feel happy.
Kannada: ninage kushi Agadu

The negative form of the Future Tense also used to express resolution or emphasis:

Examples:

Tulu: yAn Epola sullu paNayae
English:  I will never lie
Kannada: nAnu yAvattU suLLu hELenu

Tulu: kuDora yAn barayae
English:  I will never come again
Kannada: innomme nAnu barenu

Tulu: nana mitt yAn niNDa pAterayae
English:  From now on, I will never speak to you.
Kannada: innu munde nAnu ninnalli mAtannADenu

Tulu: Aye ninan Epogla buDaye
English:  He will never leave you.
Kannada: avanu ninnannu yAvattigU biDanu

Tulu: yAn ninan madapayae
English:  I will never forget you
Kannada: nAnu ninnannu mareyenu

To make the interrogative form of sentences, we need to add ‘a’ or ‘na’ at the end. If a word or sentence ends in vowel ‘a’, ‘e’, 'ae' or ‘o’, then add ‘na’. If a word or sentence ends in a consonant (half-u), ‘i’ or ‘u’, then add ‘a’. But what is important here is the way we pronounce the sentence to make it a question.

Aye barpe – He comes/He will come
Aye baruve – He will probably come

Aye barpena? – Does he come?/Will he come?
Aye baruvena? – Will he come? (Is there any possibility he will come?)

Aye barpujena? – Doesn’t he come?/Won’t he come?
Aye barayena? – Won’t he come? (Is there any possibility he will not come?)


yAn baruvena? – Will I come? (Is there any possibility I will come?)
yAn barayena? – Won’t I come? (Is there any possibility I will not come?)

I baruvana? – Will you come? (Is there any possibility you will come?)
I barayana? – Won’t you come? (Is there any possibility you will not come?)

Al baruvala? – Will she come? (Is there any possibility she will come?)
Al barayala? -  Won’t she come? (Is there any possibility she will not come?)

au baruva? – Will it come? (Is there any possibility it will come?)
au baranda? – Won’t it come? (Is there any possibility it will not come?)

nama baruvana? – Will we come? (Is there any possibility we will come?)
nama barayana? – Won’t we come? (Is there any possibility we will not come?)

nikulu baruvara? – Will you come? (Is there any possibility you will come?)
nikulu barayara? – Won’t you come? (Is there any possibility you will not come?)

akulu baruvera? – Will they come? (Is there any possibility they will come?)
akulu barayera? – Won’t they come? (Is there any possibility they will not come?)

aikulu baruvana? – Will they come? (Is there any possibility they will come?)
aikulu barayana? – Won’t they come? (Is there any possibility they will not come?)


Examples:
nama onji gaNTeD etta – We will probably reach in an hour.
nama onji gaNTeD ettaya – We will probably not reach in an hour.
nama onji gaNTeD ettana? – Is there any possibility we will reach in an hour?
nama onji gaNTeD ettayana? - Is there any possibility we will not reach in an hour?

Tulu: Aye ini pOvena?
English:  Is there any possibility he will go today?
Kannada: avanu ivattu hOdAna?

Tulu: Aye ini pOvene? (giving respect to listener)
English:  Is there any possibility he will go today?
Kannada: avanu ivattu hOdAna?

Tulu: and, pOve
English:  Yes, he will probably go
Kannada: houdu, hOdAnu

Tulu: ijji, pOvaye
English:  No, he will probably not go
Kannada: illa, hOganu

Tulu: Aye illaD uppena?
English:  Is there any possibility he will be at home?
Kannada: avanu maneyalli irabahuda?

Tulu: Aye illaD uppene? (giving respect to listener)
English:  Is there any possibility he will be at home?
Kannada: avanu maneyalli irabahuda?

Tulu: dAnna! enk gottuji
English:  Perhaps so! I don’t know
Kannada: EnO! nanage gottilla

dAne = What
dAnna (dAne + na) = something/maybe/perhaps/not certain/don’t know (used when one does not wish to be definite or assertive in the expression of an opinion.)

Tulu: Aye illaD uppena, dAnna!
English:  Perhaps, he will be at home
Kannada: avanu maneyalli irabahudO, EnO!

Tulu: Aye ellae barayena, dAnna!
English:  Maybe, he will not come tomorrow
Kannada: avanu nALe bAranO, EnO!


Aye Doctor Ape – He will become a Doctor.
Aye Doctor Ave – He will probably become a Doctor.

Aye Doctor Apena? - Will he become a Doctor?
Aye Doctor Avena? - Is there any possibility he will become a Doctor?

Aye Doctor Apuje – He will not become a Doctor.
Aye Doctor Avaye - He will probably not become a Doctor

Aye Doctor Apujena? – Won’t he become a Doctor?
Aye Doctor Avayena? - Is there any possibility he will not become a Doctor?

Ayeg bEjAr Avu – He will probably feel bad.
Ayeg bEjAr Avand – He will probably not feel bad.

Ayeg bEjAr Ava? – Will he feel bad? (Is there any possibility he will feel bad?)
Ayeg bEjAr Avanda? – Won’t he feel bad? (Is there any possibility he will not feel bad?)

In Tulu ‘Avu’ is also used to express consent like ‘okay’ in English.

Tulu: nikk ov Avu? chAna, kAphiya?
English:  What do you prefer? Tea or Coffee? Literally “Which one is okay for you, Tea or Coffee”
Kannada: ninage yAvudu AdItu? chahAna, kAphIna?

Tulu: chA Ava, kAphi Ava?
English:  Would you like to have tea or coffee?
Kannada: chahA AdIta, kAphi AdIta?

Tulu: chA Ave, kAphi Ave? (giving respect to listener)
English:  Would you like to have tea or coffee?
Kannada: chahA AdIta, kAphi AdIta?

Tulu: enk chA Avu
English:  I prefer Tea (Literally “Tea is okay for me”)
Kannada: nanage chahA AdItu

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(Note: Tulu sentences used in this lesson are common in daily conversation. But, I don't think Kannada translations in this lesson are used in daily conversation. You may only see them in historical movies or plays, if I am not wrong. If I made any mistakes in Kannada translations, feel free to correct me) 

All right! With this we come to the end of lesson 8. See you next week!


solmelu!