Tuesday, 21 February 2017

Tulu Lesson 43: Particles

namaskAra! Welcome back!

Particles are uninflected words that don’t exactly belong to another class of words (such as adverbs, etc.) but serve a function within the sentence.

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‘e’ or ‘ne’

These are emphatic particles used to emphasize a word. This can be translated as “only”, “just”, “merely”, “indeed” etc.

‘ne’ is used after a final vowel ‘a’, ‘e’, 'ae'.
‘e’ is used after a final vowel ‘i’, ‘u’ or a final consonant (or half-u).

Examples:
mara – marane
rAme – rAmene
appae – appene
kAr – kAre
pakki – pakkiye
onji - onje
guru – guruve
uNDu - uNDe
Ayeg – Ayege
barpe - barpene

Tulu: mara bUruNDu
English: Tree will fall down.
Kannada: mara bILuttade

Tulu: marane bUruNDu
English: Tree only will fall down (Here it emphasizes the tree)
Kannada: marave bILuttade

Tulu: mara bUruNDe
English: Tree will fall down indeed (Here it emphasizes the action of falling)
Kannada: mara bidde bILuttade

Tulu: yAn onje dOsae tiNDini
English: I ate only one Dosa (It emphasizes the insufficiency of a single Dosa – I ate only one Dosa, not much)
Kannada: nAnu onde dOse tindiddu

Tulu: yAne onji dOsae tiNDini
English: I only ate one Dosa (I am the one who ate Dosa, not anyone else.)
Kannada: nAne ondu dOse tindiddu

Tulu: Aye ellae barpene
English: He will come tomorrow anyhow (It emphasizes the action of coming – I am sure he will come tomorrow)
Kannada: avanu nAle bande bartAne

Tulu: Aye ellene barpe
English: He will come tomorrow only (It emphasizes the time of coming ‘tomorow’ – He will come tomorrow not other day)
Kannada: avanu nALeye bartAne

Tulu: Ayene ellae barpe
English: He himself will come tomorrow (He only will come tomorrow not anyone else)

Tulu: Aye ninane lettini
English: He called you only (not others)
Kannada: avanu ninnanne karediddu

Tulu: Ir ellae baroDe
English: You should come tomorrow in any case
Kannada: nIvu nALe barle bEku

Tulu: yAn jeidine (jeidini + e) ijji
English: I did not sleep at all
Kannada: nAnu malage illa

Tulu: Aye barpuje
English: He does not come
Kannada: avanu baruvudilla

Tulu: Aye barpine (barpini + e) ijji
English: He does not come at all
Kannada: avanu baruvude illa

Tulu: Al eNDa pAterujal
English: She does not speak with me
Kannada: avaLu nannalli mAtADuvudilla

Tulu: Al eNDa pAterune ijji
English: She does not speak with me at all
Kannada: avaLu nannalli mAtADuvude illa

Interrogative particles ‘a’, ‘na’, (‘e’, ‘ne’)

‘These are interrogative particles used in simple questions. ‘e’/‘ne’ are very polite and used to give respect when speaking to elders/strangers.
‘na’ and ‘ne’ are used after a final vowel ‘a’, ‘e’, 'ae'.
‘a’ and ‘e’ are used after a final vowel ‘i’, ‘u’ or a final consonant (or half-u).

 Examples:

mara – marana? / marane? - Is it tree?
tUka – tUkana? / tUkane? – Let us see?
Aye – Ayena? / Ayene? – Is it him?
barpe – barpena? / barpene? – Will he come?
mOnae – mOnena? / mOnene? – Is it face?
sari – sariya? / sariye? – Is it correct?
ijji – ijja? / ijje? – No? / Is not there?
pOyi – pOya? / pOye? – Let us go?
guru – guruva? / guruve? – Is it Guru?
uNDu – uNDa? / uNDe? – Is it there?
baroDu – baroDa? / baroDe? – Shall I come?
kaNN – kaNNa? / kaNNe? – Is it eye?
barpar – barpara? / barpare? – Will you come?

Tulu: nama movie’g pOya?
English: Let us go to movie?
Kannada: nAvu movie’ge hOgONva?

Tulu: undu ninna illa?
English: idu ninna maneya?
Kannada: Is this your house?

Tulu: I Epa barpa? iniya, ellena?
English: When will you come, today or tomorrow?
Kannada: nInu yAvAga bartIya? ivatta, nALeya?

Tulu: enkonji upakAra malpuvare?
English: Can you please do me a favor?
Kannada: nanagondu sahAya mADuttIra?

Tulu: yAn irenoTTugu baroDe?
English: Shall I come with you?
Kannada: nAnu nimmoTTige barla?

Tulu: barsa baronduNDe ijje?
English: Is it raining or not?
Kannada: maLe bartideya ilva?

Tulu: aklen leppoDa boDcha?
English: Shall I call them or not?
Kannada: avarannu karIla bEDva?

Tulu: undu eDDena atta?
English: Is this good or not?
Kannada: idu OLLeda alva?

Tulu: anda atta?
English: Yes or no?
Kannada: hauda alva?

Tulu: undu satyana sulla?
English: Is this true or a lie?
Kannada: idu satyava suLLa?

Also, these particles are used to change interrogative pronouns into indefinite pronouns and exclamatory expressions.

Examples:

Er – Era – Someone / Wonder who!
Erna – Ernana – Someone’s / Wonder whose!
enchina – enchinana – Something / Wonder what!
dAda – dAdana – Something / Wonder what!
dAne – dAnna (dAne + na) – Wonder what!
vou – vovva - Something / Wonder which one!
Et – Eta – Wonder how much!
Epa – Epana – Sometime / Wonder when!
Olu – Ola – Somewhere / Wonder where!
ODe – Odena – To somewhere / Wonder whither!
onchi – onchiya – To somewhere / Wonder whither!


Tulu:
Person A: Era ninan lettonduller
Person B: Er?
Person A: Era! enk gottuji

English:
Person A: Somebody is calling you
Person B: Who?
Person A: (Wonder who) I don’t know!

Kannada:
Person A: yAro ninnannu karItiddAre
Person B: yAru?
Person A: yAro! nanage gottilla

Tulu:
Person A: Ar Epa barper?
Person B: Epana!

English:
Person A: When he/she will come?
Person B: Wonder when! (I don’t know)

Kannada:
Person A: avaru yAvAga bartAre?
Person B: yAvAglo!

Tulu: Ayeg dAdana At’ND
English: Something has happened to him
Kannada: avanige Eno Agide

Tulu: akulu mUle Ola uppoDu
English: They should be here (only) somewhere.
Kannada: avaru ille ello irbEku

Tulu: mokulu ODena pOyer
English: They went somewhere
Kannada: avaru elligo hOdaru

‘dAnna’ is used to express doubt and commonly placed after the word with the interrogative particles.

Tulu: Aye illaD ullena dAnna!
English: Maybe, he is at home. I am not sure!
Kannada: avanu maneyalli iddAno Eno!

Tulu: aleg dAda ANDa dAnna!
English: I am not sure what happened to her!
Kannada: avaLige Enu Ayto Eno!

‘la’

This can be used as a simple adverb in English “too/also” or an emphatic particle which can be translated as “even” or a conjunction “and”.

Examples:

Tulu: appaela magalla batter
English: Mother and daughter came
Kannada: tAyiyU magaLU bandaru

Tulu: nAyila puchchaela gobbondulla
English: Dog and Cat are playing
Kannada: nAyi mattu bekku ADuttive

Tulu: enk nAyilena pODigae ApuNDu
English: I am afraid of dogs.
Kannada: nanage nAyigaLa bhaya Agtade

Tulu: enkla nAyilena pODigae ApuNDu
English: I am also afraid of dogs.
Kannada: nanagU nAyigaLa bhaya Agtade

Tulu: enk nAyilenala pODigae ApuNDu
English: I am also afraid of dogs.
Kannada: nanage nAyigaLidU bhaya Agtade

The English usage of “also/too” is unclear. The sentence ‘I am also afraid of dogs’ could mean “In addition to some other person, I am afraid of dogs” or “I am afraid of dogs in addition to other things”. However, the Tulu sentence is clear; 'la' succeeds the word that it modifies.

Tulu: yAnla niklenoTTugu barpae
English: I will come with you too.
Kannada: nAnU nimma jote bartEne

Tulu: yAn dAda paNpae aven malpuvaela
English: I also do what I say
Kannada: nAnu Enu hELtEne adannu mADtEne kUDa

Tulu: yAn onji gaNTaela jeidijae
English: I have not slept for even an hour.
Kannada: nAnu ondu gaNTeyU kUDa malagilla

Tulu: Ar enan lettijer
English: He/She didn’t call me
Kannada: avaru nannannu karililla

Tulu: Arla enan lettijer
English: He/She also did not call me
Kannada: avarU nannannu karIlilla

Tulu: Ar enanla lettijer
English: He/She did not call me too
Kannada: avaru nannannU karIlilla

Tulu: Ar enan lettinla (lettini+la) ijji
English: He/She didn’t even call me
Kannada: aavaru nannannu karilU illa

Tulu: yAn ayen lett’NDala battije
English: Even though I called him, he did not come
Kannada: nAnu avanannu karedarU avanu baralilla

Tulu: akulu battijerDala Ir baroDe
English: Even though they do not come, you should come in any case
Kannada: avaru baradiddarU nIvu barale bEku  

‘la’ is also used to change interrogative pronouns into indefinite pronouns

Examples:

Er – Erla – anyone
Erna – Ernala – anyone’s
enchina – enchinala – anything
dAda – dAla – anything
vou – voula – any of them
Et – Etla – Any quantity / Sufficient
Epa – Epala – Any time / Always
Olu – Olla – Anywhere
ODe – Odela – To anywhere
onchi – onchila – To anywhere


Tulu: illaD Erla ullera?
English: Is there anyone home?
Kannada: maneyalli yArAdarU iddAra?

Tulu: EreDala pAteroDchi
English: Don’t speak with anyone
Kannada: yArallU mAtADabEDa

Tulu: enk dAla boDchi
English: I don’t need anything
Kannada: nanage EnU bEDa

Tulu: namak pariyerae Etla nIr uNDu
English: We have sufficient water to drink
Kannada: namage kuDiyOke sAkashTu nIru ide.

Tulu: sUrye Epala mUDAyiD mUDuve
English: The sun always rises in the east
Kannada: sUrya yAvAgalU pUrvadalli mUDuttAne

Tulu: Aye Olla tOjuje
English: He is not visible anywhere
Kannada: avanu ellU kANuttilla

Tulu: Ir ODela pOvoDchi
English: You don’t go anywhere
Kannada: nIvu elligU hOgabEDi

‘gae’

This is a reporting particle which can be translated as “It is said”. When reporting something said by others, we normally use ‘gae’ at the end of sentences. Using ‘gae’ at the end of a sentence shows that the sentence you said was not yours, but it was said by someone else or you got the news from unknown source which cannot be believed true completely.

For example if some people said, "There is a bomb in the bus" (Tulu: bass’D bomb uNDu) and you want to report that, you can say:

Tulu: bass’D bomb uNDugae
English: It is said that there is a bomb in the bus
Kannada: bassalli bomb ideyante

Let us see more examples:

Tulu: janokulu paNper Aye ori kalvegae
English: People say that he is a thief.
Kannada: janaru hELtAre avanobba kaLLanante

Tulu: Aye nikk kAtondullegae
English: He (or someone else) said that he is waiting for you.
Kannada: avanu ninage kAytA iddAne ante

Tulu: akulu ellae barpergae
English: They (or someone else) said that they will come tomorrow
Kannada: avaru nAle bartAre ante

Tulu: ini I nela ochchoDugae
English: It’s said that you should wipe the floor today
Kannada: ivattu nInu nela oresabEkante


‘pand’ / ‘ind

These are not actually particles but past gerunds of verbs ‘paNpini’ (To tell/say) and ‘iNpini’ (To tell/say).

paND’d – pand = Having said
iND’d – ind = Having said

Please review the lesson Tulu Lesson 18: Uses of Gerunds(Verbal Adverbs) to know how these gerunds are used.

Apart from this, ‘pand’ / ‘ind’ can also be used as reporting particle in indirect speech which can be translated as “that” or “said that”. Let us see an example:

Direct speech:
English: He said, "I will not come."
Tulu: Aye paNDe, “yAn barpujae”
Kannada: avanu hELida, “nAnu baralla”

Indirect speech:
English: He said that he would not come.
Tulu: Aye barpuje pand paNDe
Kannada: avanu baralla anta hELida

In spoken Tulu, ‘pand’ / ‘ind’ further shortened into ‘nd’

Tulu: akulu ellae barper’nd panter
English: They (have) said that they would come tomorrow
Kannada: avaru nALe bartAre anta hELiddAre

Tulu: Al illaDe pOvondullal’nd paNDal
English: She said she was going to home
Kannada: avaLu manage hOgtiddALe anta hELidaLu

Tulu: Aye dAda malpoDu’nd kENDe
English: He asked what he should do
Kannada: avanu Enu mADabEku anta kELida

Tulu: yAn Ayeg ellae baroDu’nd paNDae
English: I told him that he should come tomorrow
Kannada: nAnu avanige nALe barabEku anta hELide

Tulu: enk dAda malpoDu’nd gottAvondijji
English: I don’t know (that) what should I do
Kannada: nanage Enu mADbEku anta gottAgtilla

Tulu: yAn nentae I sullu paNpini’nd
English: I thought that you were telling a lie
Kannada: nAnu andukoNDe nInu suLLu hELtiddIya anta

Tulu: yAn, I barpuja’nd enniyae
English: I thought that you don’t come
Kannada: nAnu, nInu baralla anta andukoNDe

‘paNDa’

‘paNDa’ is the subjunctive form of the verb ‘paNpini’ (To tell/say).

paND + Da – paNDa= If said 

Example:

Tulu: Aye enk paNDa yAn ireg paNpae
English: If he tells me, I will tell you
Kannada: avanu nanage hELidare nAnu nimage hELtEne

This word can also be used as a particle which can be translated as ‘means’/ ‘that means’

Tulu: ancha paNDa
English: That means
Kannada: hAgandre

Tulu: mUlu sharat paNDa Er?
English: Who is Sharth here?
Kannada: illi sharat andre yAru?

Tulu: I paNDa enk ishTa
English: I like you (Lit. You mean like for me)
Kannada: nInu andre nanage ishTa

Tulu: tuluTu ____ paNDa dAda?
English: What does ____ mean in Tulu?
Kannada: tuLuvalli ____ andre Enu?

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Bye!

3 comments:

  1. Your blog is really helpful but i face problems in pronunciations is there a way i can learn better pronunciations because i am being laughed at for the way i pronounce certain words

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You can learn pronunciation at the page "How to Pronounce" (http://www.easytulu.com/p/how-to-pronounce.html ). Here you can play audio for each letter to know how exactly it is pronounced.

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  2. Thank you soo much quite helpful

    ReplyDelete