Thursday, 9 June 2016

Tulu Lesson 20: Uses of Infinitives

namaskAra! Welcome back!

Today we are going to learn one more verbal which is called Infinitives. There are two infinitives in Tulu. The first form is formed by adding the suffix ‘ni’. The second is formed by the suffix ‘erae’.

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First Infinitive: Suffix ‘ni’ (also we can see ‘na’ or ‘ne’ in some dialects).

The suffix ‘ni’ is added to participles.

Present: barpi + ni >>> barpini – (to) come or coming (Kannada: baruvudu)
Simple Past: batti + ni >>> battini – Came (Kannada: bandadu)
Past Perfect: baidi + ni >>> baidini – have come (Kannada: bandiruvudu)
Negative: barandi + ni >>> barandini – have not come (Kannada: baradiruvudu)

This form is generally used instead of personal forms of verbs in questions or answering questions or when emphasizing the action (verb).

Example:

Er battini? – Who came? (Kannada: yAru bandadu?)

In the above example, we already know someone has come, but we don’t know who it is. So we are emphasizing the verb ‘came’ in the sentence. I don’t think we have certain rules on using infinitives instead of personal forms of verbs in Tulu, but it works as same as Kannada or other Dravidian languages.

Let us see more examples:

Tulu: I dAye battini?
English: Why did you come?
Kannada: nInu Eke bandadu?

Tulu: I ODe pOpini?
English: Where do you go? (Where are you going?)
Kannada: nInu ellige hOguvudu?

Tulu: Aye ittae pOyini
English: He went (has gone) just now
Kannada: avanu Iga hOdadu

Tulu: nikulu Epa baidini?
Englih: When did you all come? (When have you come?)
Kannada: nIvu yAvaga bandiruvudu?

Tulu: Er barandini?
English: Who did not come?
Kannada: yAru baradiruvudu?

Tulu: akulu kODae battini, ini pOpini
English: They came yesterday and will go today.
Kannada: avaru ninne bandadu, ivattu hOguvudu

Tulu: I lettinekk yAn battini
English: I came because you called me
Kannada: nInu karedadakke nAnu bandadu

Tulu: I paNDinekk yAn maltini
English: I did it because you told me
Kannada: nInu hELidakke nAnu mADidu

Infinitives can also be used as nouns:

Tulu: barpini pOpini
English: Coming and going
Kannada: baruvudu hOguvudu

Tulu: parpini ArOgyag eDDae att
English: Drinking is not good for health
Kannada: kuDiyuvudu ArOgyakke oLLeyadalla

Tulu: tulu kalpuni mast sulabha
English: Learnig Tulu is very easy
Kannada: tuLu kaliyuvudu tumbA sulabha


Second Infinitive: suffix ‘erae’

The suffix ‘erae’ is added to root verb. However, an extra ‘y’ sound is added to Class A verbs before adding the suffix ‘erae’

Examples:

bar + erae >>> baryerae / barrae – To come
pO + erae >>> pOyerae – To go
tU + erae >>> tUyerae  - To see
tiN + erae >>> tiNyerae / tiNDrae – To eat
uN + erae >>> uNyerae / uNDrae – To have lunch/dinner
ker + erae >>> keryerae / kerrae – To kill
kor + erae >>> koryere / korrae – To give

malpu + erae >>> malperae – To do
uppu + erae >>> upperae – To be
kEN + erae >>> kENerae / kENDrae – To ask/hear
untu + erae >>> unterae – To stand
kullu + erae >>> kullerae – To sit
bUru + erae >>> bUrerae / bUrrae – To fall
dettoNu + erae >>> dettoNerae / dettoNDrae – To take (for oneself)
malpA + erae >>> malpAyerae – To make someone do

This form is used same as ‘to + verb’ in English. Sometimes the dative case suffix ‘g’ is used with this form optionally.

Tulu: yAn ninan tUyerae battini / yAn ninan tUyereg battini
English: I came to see you
Kannada: nAnu ninnannu nODalu (nODalikke) bandadu

Tulu: enk tulu pAterrae (pAtererae) barpuji
English: I don’t know to speak Tulu
Kannada: nanage tuLu mAtannADalu baruvudilla

Tulu: enk sAleg pOyerae uNDu
English: I have to go to school
Kannada: nanage shAlege hOgalikke ide

Tulu: nikk malparae dAla bElae ijja?
English: Don’t you have anything to do?
Kannada: ningae mADalikke EnU kelasa ilva?

Tulu:  Ayen telipAyerae enaDd sAdya ijji
English: It’s not possible for me to make him smile
Kannada: avanannu nagisalu nanninda sAdhya illa

Tulu: enk ninan madaperae Apuji
English: I can’t forget you (It’s not possible for me to forget you)
Kannada: nanage ninnanu mareyalikke Aguvudilla

Tulu: enk buliperae barpuNDu
English: I feel like to cry
Kannada: nanage aLu bartade

Tulu: ireg tiNDrae (tiNyarae) dAla bODe?
English: Do you want anything to eat?
Kannada: nimage tinnalikke EnAdrU bEka?

‘bODu’ is a modal verb in Tulu which means ‘want’, ‘need’. Its opposite is ‘boDchi’ which means ‘not wanted’, ‘need not’.

Examples:

Tulu: enk nIr bODu
English: I want water
Kannada: nanage nIru bEku

Tulu: nikk chA bODa?
Enlglish: Do you want tea?
Kannda: ninage chaha bEka?

Tulu: enk chA boDchi, kAphi bODu
English: I don’t want tea, I want coffee
Kannda: nanage chaha bEDa, kAphi bEku

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

If you need more sentences translated in Tulu, please leave a comment. If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu J

See you next week!


solmelu! 

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