Wednesday, 29 June 2016

Tulu Lesson 23: Potential mood (must, should, need, can, may)

namaskAra! encha ullar?

Today we are going to learn Potential mood in Tulu. Potential mood is used to express ability, permission, obligation, expectation or necessity of an action. Examples: He should come, You may go, He can write etc.

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In Tulu, Potential mood is formed by using the following modal verbs or suffixes:

Suffix ‘oDu’
Modal verb ‘boDchi’
Suffix ‘oli’
Modal verb ‘balli’
Modal verbs ‘tIruni’ or ‘Apini’

Suffix ‘oDu’: To express obligation, expectation or necessity (must, should or need)

The suffix ‘oDu’ is derived from the modal verb ‘bODu’ which means ‘want’ or ‘need’.

Root verb + oDu

bar + oDu >>> baroDu – should come / must come / need come (Kannada: barabEku)
tiN + oDu >>> tiNoDu – should eat / must eat / need eat (Kannada: tinnabEku)
malpu + oDu >>> malpoDu - should do / must do / need do (mADabEku)
malpA + oDu >>> malpAvoDu - should have someone do / must have someone do / need have someone do (mADisabEku)
maltoNu + oDu >>> maltoNoDu - should do for oneself/ must do for oneself / need do for oneself (mADikoLLabEku)

Modal verb ‘boDchi’: To express suggestion or necessity (must not / should not / need not)

Modal verb ‘boDchi’ (don’t want or don’t need) is directly added to infinitives (first form)

Infinitive (first form) + boDchi

pOpini + boDchi >>> pOpinaboDchi - should not go / must not go / need not go (Kannada: hOguvudubEDa)
paNpini + boDchi >>> paNpinaboDchi – should not tell / must not tell / need not tell (Kannada: hELuvudubEDa)
malpuni + boDchi >>> malpunaboDchi - should not do / must not do / need not do (Kannada: mADuvudubEDa)

Suffix ‘oli’: To express permission (may or can)

Root verb + oli

bar + oli >>> baroli – may come / can come / permitted to come (Kannada: barabahudu)
rA + oli >>> rAvoli – may fly (Kannada: hArabahudu)
jeppu + oli >>> jeppoli – may sleep (Kannada: malagabahudu)
malpu + oli >>> malpoli – may do (Kannada: mADabahudu)

In English ‘may’ is also used to express probability. But in Tulu we have Uncertain Future Tense to express probability.

Example:

Tulu: Aye ellae baruve
English: He may come tomorrow (He will probably come tomorrow)
Kannada: avanu nALe barabahudu (avanu nALe bandAnu)

Modal verb ‘balli’: To express permission or necessity (may not or should not)

Modal verb ‘balli’ is directly added to infinitives (second form)

Infinitive (second form) + balli

pOyerae + balli >>> pOyeraeballi – may not go / not permitted to go / should not go (Kannada: hOgabAradu)
tiNDrae + balli >>> tiNDraeballi – may not eat (Kannada: tinnabAradu)
kullerae + balli >>> kulleraeballi – may not sit (Kannada: kUtukoLLabAradu)
malperae + balli >>> malperaeballi – may not do (Kannada: mADabAradu)

Modal verbs ‘tIruni’ or ‘Apini’: To express ability (can / could / be able / not be able)

The third person neuter present tense/future tense/past tense form of the verbs ‘tIruni’ (To be able) and ‘Apini’ (To become) are used with infinitives (second form).

Infinitive (second form) + tIruni/Apini

Present:

pOyerae + tIruNDu/ApuNDu  >>> pOyerae tIruNDu / pOyerae ApuNDu –  can go / be able to go (Kannada: hOgaballe / hOgalu sAdyavide)
malperae tIruNDu – can do (Kannda: mADaballe / mADalu sAdyavide)
rAyerae ApuNDu – can fly (Kannada: hAraballe / hAralu sAdyavide)
naDaperae tIruji – cannot walk (Kannada: naDeyalAre / naDeyalu sAdyavilla)
unterae Apuji – cannot stand (Kannada: nillalAre / nillalu sAdyavilla)

Future:

pOyerae tIru / pOyerae Avu – will be able to go / may be able to go (Kannada: hOgaballe / hOgalu sAdyavAdItu) 
tiNDrae Avand – will not be able to eat / may not be able to eat (Kannada: tinnalu Agadu / tinnalAre)
buliperae tIrand – will not be able to cry (Kannada: aLalAre / aLalu sAdyavilla)

Past:

pOyerae tIr’ND / pOyerae AND – could go / was able to go (Kannada: hOgalu sAdyavAytu)
naDaperae tIriji – could not walk (Kannada: naDeyalu Agalilla)
bareyerae Ayiji – could not write (Kannada: bareyalu Agalilla)


Lets us now make some sentences in potential mood.

Tulu: Ir khaNDita baroDu
English: You must come
Kannada: nIvu khaNDita barabEku

Tulu: I bEga jeppoDu
English: You should sleep early
Kannada: nInu bEga malagabEku

Tulu: Aye ellae baroDu
English: He should come tomorrow
Kannada: avanu nALe barabEku

Tulu: mAta janokulu oggaTTavoDu
English: All people need to unite.
Kannada: ella janagaLu oggaTTagabEku

Tulu: I ori Doctor AvoDu
English: You should become a Doctor
Kannada: nInobba Doctor AgabEku

Tulu: yAn pOvoDa?
English: Should I go?
Kannada: nAnu hOgabEka?

Tulu: yAn pOvoDa, boDcha?
English: Should I go or not?
Kannada: nAnu hOgabEka, bEDva?

Tulu: yAn dAda malpoDu?
English: What should I do?
Kannada: nAnu Enu mADabEku?

Tulu: suru nama illaDe pOvodu
English: We need to go home first
Kannada: modalu nAvu manege hOgabEku

Tulu: yAn ellae kANDae enma gaNTeg sAleD uppoDu, enk parIkhsae UNDu
English: I must be at school tomorrow at 8 a.m. I have an exam
Kannada: nAnu nALe beLigge eNTu gaNTege shAleyalli irabEku, nanage parIkhse ide

Tulu: akulu ellae barpinaboDchi
English: They should not come tomorrow 
Kannada: avaru nALe baruvudubEDa

Tulu: I ini sAleg pOpinaboDchi
English: You don’t have to go to school today
Kannada: nInu ivattu shAlege hOguvudubEDa

Tulu: Ar dAla bElae malpunaboDchi, yAn malpuvae
English: He/She need not do any work, I will do
Kannada: avaru EnU kelasa mADuvudubEDa, nAnu mADtEne

Tulu: yAn pOpinaboDcha?
English: Shouldn’t I go?
Kannada: nAnu hOguvudubEDva?

Tulu: nama laDai malpunaboDchi
English: We should not fight
Kannada: nAvu jagala ADuvudubEDa

Tulu: Aye ulai barpinaboDChi, pidai kApaD
English: He must not come inside, let him wait outside
Kannada: avanu oLage baruvudubEDa, horage kAyali

Tulu: I itte pOvoli
English: You may go now
Kannada: nInu Iga hOgabahudu

Tulu: Ir ini rajae dettonoli
English: You may take leave today
Kannada: nIvu ivattu raje tegedukoLLabahudu

Tulu: yAn ulai baroliye?
English: May I come in?
Kannada: nAnu oLage barabahuda?

Tulu: yAn ninnoTTugu baroliya?
English: May I come with you?
Kannada: nAnu ninna jate barabahuda?

Tulu: enk onji sAya malpoliya?
English: Can you do me a favor?
Kannada: nanage ondu sahAya maDabahuda?

Tulu: vArogora illaDe pOvoli
English: (One) Can go home once a week
Kannada: vArakkomme manege hOgabahudu

Tulu: Aye baryere balli
English: He may not (not allowed to) come
Kannada: avanu barabAradu

Tulu: Ir onas malpande pOyere balli
English: You may not leave without having the lunch/dinner
Kannada: nIvu UTa mADade hOgabAradu

Tulu: yAn ulai baryere balliya?
English: Am I not allowed to come in?
Kannada: nAnu oLage barabArada?

Tulu: nama sOpere balli, kuDora prayatna baroDu
English: We may not lose, we should try again
Kannada: nAvu sOlabAradu, innomme prayatnisabEku

Tulu: sullu paNDrae balli
English: (one) should not tell a lie
Kannada: suLLu hELabAradu

Tulu: buliperae balli
English: (One) should not cry
Kannada: aLabAradu

Tulu: enk nInderae ApuNDu
English: I can swim
Kannada: nAnu Ija balle

Tulu: Ayeg naDaperae tIruji
English: He can’t walk
Kannada: avanige naDeyOke Agalla

Tulu: nikk kudureDd bIsa baliperae tIruNDu
English: You are able to run faster than a horse.
Kannada: nInu kudureginta vEgavagi ODaballe

Tulu: enkleg ellae barrae Avand
English: We will not be able to come tomorrow / we may not be able to come tomorrow
Kannada: namage nALe baralu Agadu

Tulu: namak I bElae malperae tIruva?
English: Will we be able to do this work?
Kannada: namage I kelasa mADalu AdIta?

Tulu: akleg kODae pAterrae Ayiji
English: They could not speak yesterday
Kannada: avarige ninne mAtannADalu Agalilla

Tulu: nikk kANDae bEga lakkerae ANDa?
English: Were you able to get up early in the morning?
Kannada: ninage beLagge bEga ELOke Ayta?

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

If you need more sentences translated in Tulu, please leave a comment. If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu J

See you next week!


solmelu!

Thursday, 23 June 2016

Tulu Lesson 22: Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns

namaskAra! Welcome back!

Today we are going to learn something very easy i.e. Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns. We have already learned Subjective (Personal) pronouns in the lesson 2.

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An interrogative pronoun is a pronoun which is used in order to ask questions. In Tulu we have following interrogative pronouns:

Tulu
Kannada
English
dAda(u)
Enu
What
dAnae
Enu
What
enchina(u)
Enu / entadu
What
Er
yAru
Who
vou
yAvudu
Which one

An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that does not refer to any person or thing in particular. Some of the indefinite Pronouns in Tulu are:

Tulu
Kannada
English
dAla
EnU
Anything
dAdANDala
EnAdarU
Anything / Something
dAdana
EnO
Something
Erla
yArU
Anyone
EraNDala
yArAdarU
Anyone / Someone
Era
yArO
Someone
oriye
obba
One person (M)
orti
obbaLu
One person (F)
onji
ondu
One thing
kuDonji
innondu
Another thing
kuDoriye
innobba
Another Person (M)
kuDorti
innobbaLu
Another Person (F)
mAta
ella
All
mAterla
ellArU
Everyone
mAtala
ellavU
Everything
kelavu
kelavu
Some
kelever
kelavaru
Some People

Declensions of these pronouns are same as Subjective (Personal) Pronouns. But these pronouns are used in only some cases.

Examples:

Eren – whom (yArannu)
EreDd – from/by whom (yArinda)
Ereg – for/to whom (yArige)
Erna – whose (yAra)
ErDa – with/to whom (yAralli/yArondige)
dAden – what (Enannu)
enchinen – what (Enannu)
enchineg – to/for what (Enakke)
voven (voin) – which one (yAvudannu)
voiDd – from/by which (yAvudarinda)
voik – for/to which (yAvudakke)
voita – of which (yAvudara)
voiT – in which (yAvudaralli)
voiTa – with/to which (yAvudarondige)

Let us now make some sentences using these pronouns:

Tulu: ninna pudar dAda (or enchina)?
English: What is your name?
Kannada: ninna hesaru Enu?

Tulu: au dAda?
English: What is that?
Kannada: adu Enu?

Tulu: I dAda bElae malpuni?
English: What job do you do?
Kannada: nInu Enu kelasa mADuvudu?

Tulu: Er battini?
English: Who came?
Kannada: yAru bandadu?

Tulu: dAnae battini?
English: Why did you come?
Kannada: Enu bandadu?

The word ‘dAnae’ can give different meaning when used in different situations. In the above example it gives the meaning of ‘why’ or ‘for what purpose’. It can also be used to express greetings when people meet one another.

Tulu: dAnae! encha ullar?
English: Hello, How are you?
Kannada: Enu! hEgiddIra?

Tulu: boka dAnae vishEsha?
English: Then what’s special?
Kannada: matte Enu vishEsha?

Tulu: I kathen Er baretini?
English: Who has written this story?
Kannada: I katheyannu yAru barediruvudu

Tulu: undu Erna ill?
English: Whose house is this?
Kannada: idu yAra mane?

Tulu: EreDa paNDa?
English: With whom did you tell?
Kannada: yAralli hELide?

Tulu: I raDD angileD nikk vou Avu?
English: Which one do you chose from these two shirts?
Kannada: I eraDu angigaLalli ninage yAvudu AdItu?

Tulu: nikk dAla paNDrae (paNyerae) uNDa?
English: Do you have anything to say?
Kannada: ninage EnAdarU hELalikke ideya?

Tulu: pODyoDchi, dAla Apuji!
English: Don’t fear, nothing will happen!
Kannada: hedarbEDa, EnU Agalla!

Tulu: dAdANDala malpula
English: Do something
Kannada: EnAdarU mAdu

Tulu: Ayeg dAdana At’ND
English: Something has happened to him.
Kannada: avanige EnO Agide

Tulu: illaD Erla ullera?
English: Is anyone home?
Kannada: maneyalli yArAdarU iddIra?

Tulu: Erla ijjer
English: No one is there
Kannada: yArU illa

Tulu: dayadId, ErANDala enk sAya malpule
English: Please someone help me
Kannada: dayaviTTu, yArAdarU nanage sahAya mADi

Tulu: ninan Era lettonduller
English: Someone is calling you
Kannada: ninnannu yAro karitA iddAre

Tulu: Era baider
English: Someone has come
Kannada: yArO bandiddAre

Tulu: Era baidijer
English: Someone has not come
Kannada: yArO bandilla

Tulu: Erla baidijer
English: No one has come
Kannada: yArU bandilla

Tulu: oriye udda itte, kuDoriye kudya itte
English: One was tall and the other was short
Kannada: obba udda idda, innobba giDDa idda

Tulu: mAta pOyer
English: All went
Kannada: ellA hoDaru

Tulu: mAterla ninan tUvondu itter
English: Everyone was looking at you
Kannada: ellarU ninnannu nODuttiddaru

Tulu: mAtala sama ApuNDu
English: Everything will be alright
Kannada: ellavU sari Agtade

Tulu: kelavu pettalu batta, kelavu nanala baidija
English: Some cows came (have arrived), but some have not come yet
Kannada: kelavu danagaLu bandavu, kelavu innU bandilla

Tulu: kelaver ini pOper, oridinakulu ellae pOper
English: Some will go today, rest of them will go tomorrow
Kannada: kelavaru ivattu hOgtAre, uLidavaru nALe hOgtAre


Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

If you need more sentences translated in Tulu, please leave a comment. If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu J

See you next week!


solmelu!

Friday, 17 June 2016

Tulu Lesson 21: Imperative Mood

namaskAra! Welcome back!

So far we have finished 20 lessons in Tulu. I hope you are enjoying the lessons. If you have any feedbacks, please let me know. Today we are going to learn imperative forms in Tulu. The imperative mood is verb form that generally used to make a command or a request. Look at these sentences in English:

Go!
Be quit!
Let us go!
Let him do!

Now we are going to learn these types of sentences in Tulu.

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Let us look at all of the imperative forms used in Tulu:


Singular
Plural
Pronoun
Ending
Example: malpu
Pronoun
Ending
Example: malpu
First Person
yAn
-
-
nama
ka/ga
malpuga
Second Person
I
la / nothing
malpula / malpu
nikulu/Ir
le
malpule
Third Person
Masc.
Aye/imbe
aD
malpaD
akulu/Ar/mokulu/mEr
aD
malpaD
Fem.
Al/mOlu
aD
malpaD
Neut.
au/undu
aD
malpaD
aikulu/undekulu
aD
malpaD

First Person Imperative forms:

First person plural imperatives are used mainly for suggesting an action to be performed together by the speaker and the listener.  

Tulu does not have imperative forms for the first person singular ‘yAn’.

As we know, we have two pronouns for first person plural in Tulu, they are:
  1. nama - the person to whom spoken is also included
  2. enkulu - the person to whom spoken is not included

Only ‘nama’ has imperative form in Tulu.

To make imperative form for the pronoun ‘nama’, we have to add ‘ka/ga’ to root verbs. (‘ka’ for Class A verbs and ‘ga’ for Class B verbs)

Root verb + ka/ga

malpu + ga >>> malpuga – Let us do (Kannda: mADONa)
bar + ka >>> barka – Let us come (Kannada: barONa)
uN + ka >>> uNka – Let us have lunch/dinner (Kannada: uTa mADONa)
kullu + ga >>> kulluga – Let us sit (Kannada: kuLitukoLLONa)
telipu + ga >>> telipuga Let us smile/laugh (Kannada: nagONa)
kEN + ga >>> kENga – Let us ask/hear (Kannada: kELONa)
paN + ka >>> paNka – Let us say (Kannada: hELONa)
tU + ka >>> tUka – Let us see (Kannada: nODONa)
tUpA + ga >>> tUpAga – Let us show (Kannada: tOrisONa)
pO + ka >>> pOka or pOyi – Let us go (Kannada: hOGONa)

The verb ‘pO’ is irregular. The imperative form ‘pOyi’ is used more frequently compared to ‘pOka’.

Examples:

Tulu: nama ellae tikk’ga
English: Let us meet tomorrow
Kannada: nAvu nALe sigONa

Tulu: nama kuDlag pOyi
English: Let us go to Mangalore
Kannada: nAvu mangaLUrige hOgONa

Tulu: dAda ApuNDu tUka
English: Let us see what will happen
Kannada: Enu Agtade nODONa

Tulu: nama kushiT uppuga
English: Let us be happy
Kannada: nAvu khushiyinda irONA

Tulu: ini naDatondu pOyi
English: Let us go walking today
Kannada: ivattu naDedukoNDu hOgONa

Tulu: nama tulu kalpuga
English: Let us learn Tulu
Kannada: nAvu tuLu kaliyONa

Tulu: nama ini movie’g pOya?
English: Let’s go to movie today?
Kannada: nAvu ivattu movie’ge hOgONva?

Tulu: chA parkana, boDcha?
English: Let us have tea or not?
Kannada: chaha kuDiyONva, bEDva?

There is no negative imperative form for the first persons in Tulu, but this can be expressed by using the negative gerund with imperative forms of the verb ‘uppu’.

Examples:

Tulu: nama pOvandae uppuga
English: Let us not go
Kannda: nAvu hOgadirONa

Tulu: nama manipande uppuga
English: Let us not talk
Kannda: nAvu summane (mAtannADade) irONa

Tulu: nama dAla tiNandae uppuga
English: Let us not eat anything
Kannada: nAvu EnU tinnadirONa

Second Person Imperative forms:


Second Person imperatives are used for ordering, requesting or advising the listener to do something and to express a wish.

Usually the root verb itself is the imperative form for the second person singular. We can add the suffix ‘la’ optionally to the root verb. However, adding  the suffix ‘la’ is mandatory for the verbs with single syllable like tU, dI, mI, rA, A, sai (except pO) to make second person singular imperative forms.   

Root verb + la

malpu or malpula - Come (Kannada: mADu)
kEN or kENla - Hear/Ask/Listen (Kannada: kELu)
paN or paNla - Tell/Say (Kannada: hELu)
pO or pOla - Go (Kannada: hOgu)
tUla – See/Look (Kannada: nODu)
Ala – Become (Kannada: Agu)
rAla – Fly (Kannada: hAru)
dIla – Keep or Place (Kannada: iDu)

The verb ‘bar’ is irregular.

bar + la >>> balla >>> bala – Come (Kannada: bA)

To make second person plural imperative forms, the suffix ‘le’ is added to root verbs.   

Root verb + le

bar + le >>> balle >>> bale – Come (Kannada: banni)
kENle - Hear/Ask/Listen (Kannada: kELi)
paNle - Tell/Say (Kannada: hELi)
pOle - Go (Kannada: hOgi)
tUle – See/Look (Kannada: nODi)
Ale – Become (Kannada: Agi)
rAle – Fly (Kannada: hAri)
dIle – Keep or Place (Kannada: iDi)

Examples:

Tulu: rAma! iDe bala
English: Rama! Come here
Kannada: rAma! illi bA

Tulu: pENTeg pOdu ari kanala
English: Go to the bazaar and bring some rice
Kannada: pETege hOgi akki koNDu bA

Tulu: onji lOTae nIr koru
English: Give me a glass of water
Kannada: ondu lOTa nIru koDu

Tulu: satya paN
English: Tell the truth
Kannada: satya hELu

Tulu: sAleg pO
English: Go to school
Kannada: shAlege hOgu

Tulu: jAgrateD uppula
English: Be Careful
Kannada: jAgrateyinda iru

Tulu: ninna bElae malpu
English: Do your work
Kannda: ninna kelasa mADu

Tulu: posa angi dettoNDana? enk tUpAv (tOjAv)
English: Did you buy a new dress? Show it to me
Kannada: hosa angi takoNDeya? nanage tOrisu

Tulu: bAlen jeppAla
English: Make the baby to sleep
Kannada: maguvannu malagisu

Tulu: enan tUla
English: Look at me
Kannda: nannannu nODu

Tulu: nIr parle
English: Drink some water
Kannda: nIru kuDIri

Tulu: aven tirt dIle
English: Put that down
Kannada: adannu keLage iDi

Tulu: Ayen leppule
English: Call him
Kannda: avanannu karIri

Tulu: bAkil deppule
English: Open the door
Kannda: bAgilu tegIri

Tulu: manipande kullule
English: Sit Quietly
Kannada: summane kuLitukoLLi

Tulu: dayadId enan artha maltoNle
English: Please try to understand me
Kannada: dayaviTTu nannannu artha mADikoLLi

Tulu: enna bag’n vantae pattoNle
English: Hold my bag for a moment
Kannada: nanna bag’annu swalpa hiDidukoLLi

Tulu: nUdu varsha kushiT bad’k’le
English: May you live 100 years happily
Kannada: nUru varsha kushiyinda bALi

Imperative forms can be used in a variety of ways depending on the persons you are addressing.

bala / pO (pOla) – Come / Go (Kannda: bA / hOgu): Informal or singular – can be used for both male and female friends/younger persons

balaya / pOya - Come / Go (Kannada: bAra / hOga): Informal or singular – can be used for both male and female friends/younger persons

balambae / pOmbae – Come / Go (Kannada: bAro / hOgo): Informal or singular – can be used for male friends/younger persons – Don’t use this for any one unless your close friend
   
balade / pOde - Come / Go (Kannada: bAre / hOge): informal or singular – can be used for female friends/younger persons – Don’t use this for any one unless your close friend
  
bale / pOle – Come / Go (Kannada: banni / hOgi): Plural or to show respect to a person – can be used for both male and female elder persons/strangers

baleye / pOleye – Come / Go (Kannada: banniri / hOgiri): To show respect to a person – can be used for both male and female elders/strangers

To make negative imperative forms for the second persons, add the suffix ‘aDa’ (singular) or ‘aDe’ (plural) to root verbs.

Examples:

Tulu: iDe baraDa
English: Don’t come here
Kannada: illi barabEDa

Tulu: sullu paNaDa
English: Don’t tell a lie
Kannada: suLLu hELbEDa

Tulu: enan tUvaDa
English: Don’t look at me
Kannda: nannannu nODabEDa

Tulu: amasara malpaDe
English: Don’t hurry
Kannada: avasara mADbEDi

Tulu: Ayen leppaDe
English: Don’t call him
Kannda: avanannu karibEDi

Tulu: enan madapaDe
English: Don’t forget me
Kannada: nannannu maribEDi

Also, there is another negative imperative form for the second persons that can be formed by adding the suffix ‘oDchi’ (for both singular and plural) which is derived from modal verb ‘boDchi’ (Don’t want/Don’t need)

Tulu: aDe pOvoDchi
English: Don’t go there
Kannada: alli hOgbEDa

Tulu: enan tUvoDchi
English: Don’t look at me
Kannad: nannannu nODbEDa

Tulu: eNDa pAteroDchi
English: Don’t talk with me
Kannada: nannondige mAtannADabEDa

Tulu: pODyoDchi
English: Don’t be scared
Kannda: hedarbEDa

Third Person Imperative forms:

Third person imperatives are used to suggest or order that third parties be permitted to do something and to express a wish.

To make third person imperative forms (both singular and plural), the suffix ‘aD’ is added to root verbs.

Root verb + aD

bar + aD >>> baraD – Let it/him/her/them come (Kannada: barali)
kENaD – Let it/him/her/them hear/ask (Kannada: kELali)
tiNaD - Let it/him/her/them eat (Kannada: tinnali)
pOvaD - Let it/him/her/them go (Kannada: hOgali)
AvaD - Let it/him/her/them be/become (Kannada: Agali)
uppaD - Let it/him/her/them be (Kannada: irali)

Tulu: anchene AvaD
English: Let it be so
Kannada: hAgE Agali

Tulu: Aye ellae baraD
English: Let him come tomorrow
Kannada: avanu nAle barali

Tulu: Al onas malpaD
English: Let her eat her lunch/dinner
Kannada: avaLu UTa mADali

Tulu: I bAjana dekk’la, Aye kuNTu ardaD
English: You wash the dishes, let him wash the clothes.
Kannada: nInu pAtre toLi, avanu baTTe ogeyali

Tulu: akulu bAlen tUvoNaD
English: Let them take care of the baby
Kannada: avaru maguvannu nODikoLLali

Tulu: Aye pidai kApaD
English: Let him wait outside
Kannada: avanu horage kAyali

Tulu: Aye ittae pOvaDa?
English: Let him go now?
Kannada: avanu Iga hOgala?

Tulu: Ar tIrmAna malpaD
English: Let him/her decide
Kannada: avaru tIrmAna mADali

Tulu: nikk dEver eDDae malpaD
English: May God bless you
Kannada: ninage dEvaru oLLedu mADali

Tulu: mAta janokulu kushiT uppaD
English: May all the people be happy
Kannada: ellA janaru kushiyinda irali

There is no negative imperative form for the third persons in Tulu, but this can be expressed by using the negative gerund with imperative forms of the verb ‘uppu’.

Tulu: Aye barandae uppaD
English: Let him not come
Kannada: avanu barade irali

Tulu: akulu manipandae uppaD
English: Let them not speak (be quiet)
Kannada: avaru summane (mAtannADade) irali

Tulu: ancha Avandae uppaD
English: Let it not be so
Kannada: hAge Agadirali

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

If you need more sentences translated in Tulu, please leave a comment. If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu J

See you next week!


solmelu!

Thursday, 9 June 2016

Tulu Lesson 20: Uses of Infinitives

namaskAra! Welcome back!

Today we are going to learn one more verbal which is called Infinitives. There are two infinitives in Tulu. The first form is formed by adding the suffix ‘ni’. The second is formed by the suffix ‘erae’.

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First Infinitive: Suffix ‘ni’ (also we can see ‘na’ or ‘ne’ in some dialects).

The suffix ‘ni’ is added to participles.

Present: barpi + ni >>> barpini – (to) come or coming (Kannada: baruvudu)
Simple Past: batti + ni >>> battini – Came (Kannada: bandadu)
Past Perfect: baidi + ni >>> baidini – have come (Kannada: bandiruvudu)
Negative: barandi + ni >>> barandini – have not come (Kannada: baradiruvudu)

This form is generally used instead of personal forms of verbs in questions or answering questions or when emphasizing the action (verb).

Example:

Er battini? – Who came? (Kannada: yAru bandadu?)

In the above example, we already know someone has come, but we don’t know who it is. So we are emphasizing the verb ‘came’ in the sentence. I don’t think we have certain rules on using infinitives instead of personal forms of verbs in Tulu, but it works as same as Kannada or other Dravidian languages.

Let us see more examples:

Tulu: I dAye battini?
English: Why did you come?
Kannada: nInu Eke bandadu?

Tulu: I ODe pOpini?
English: Where do you go? (Where are you going?)
Kannada: nInu ellige hOguvudu?

Tulu: Aye ittae pOyini
English: He went (has gone) just now
Kannada: avanu Iga hOdadu

Tulu: nikulu Epa baidini?
Englih: When did you all come? (When have you come?)
Kannada: nIvu yAvaga bandiruvudu?

Tulu: Er barandini?
English: Who did not come?
Kannada: yAru baradiruvudu?

Tulu: akulu kODae battini, ini pOpini
English: They came yesterday and will go today.
Kannada: avaru ninne bandadu, ivattu hOguvudu

Tulu: I lettinekk yAn battini
English: I came because you called me
Kannada: nInu karedadakke nAnu bandadu

Tulu: I paNDinekk yAn maltini
English: I did it because you told me
Kannada: nInu hELidakke nAnu mADidu

Infinitives can also be used as nouns:

Tulu: barpini pOpini
English: Coming and going
Kannada: baruvudu hOguvudu

Tulu: parpini ArOgyag eDDae att
English: Drinking is not good for health
Kannada: kuDiyuvudu ArOgyakke oLLeyadalla

Tulu: tulu kalpuni mast sulabha
English: Learnig Tulu is very easy
Kannada: tuLu kaliyuvudu tumbA sulabha


Second Infinitive: suffix ‘erae’

The suffix ‘erae’ is added to root verb. However, an extra ‘y’ sound is added to Class A verbs before adding the suffix ‘erae’

Examples:

bar + erae >>> baryerae / barrae – To come
pO + erae >>> pOyerae – To go
tU + erae >>> tUyerae  - To see
tiN + erae >>> tiNyerae / tiNDrae – To eat
uN + erae >>> uNyerae / uNDrae – To have lunch/dinner
ker + erae >>> keryerae / kerrae – To kill
kor + erae >>> koryere / korrae – To give

malpu + erae >>> malperae – To do
uppu + erae >>> upperae – To be
kEN + erae >>> kENerae / kENDrae – To ask/hear
untu + erae >>> unterae – To stand
kullu + erae >>> kullerae – To sit
bUru + erae >>> bUrerae / bUrrae – To fall
dettoNu + erae >>> dettoNerae / dettoNDrae – To take (for oneself)
malpA + erae >>> malpAyerae – To make someone do

This form is used same as ‘to + verb’ in English. Sometimes the dative case suffix ‘g’ is used with this form optionally.

Tulu: yAn ninan tUyerae battini / yAn ninan tUyereg battini
English: I came to see you
Kannada: nAnu ninnannu nODalu (nODalikke) bandadu

Tulu: enk tulu pAterrae (pAtererae) barpuji
English: I don’t know to speak Tulu
Kannada: nanage tuLu mAtannADalu baruvudilla

Tulu: enk sAleg pOyerae uNDu
English: I have to go to school
Kannada: nanage shAlege hOgalikke ide

Tulu: nikk malparae dAla bElae ijja?
English: Don’t you have anything to do?
Kannada: ningae mADalikke EnU kelasa ilva?

Tulu:  Ayen telipAyerae enaDd sAdya ijji
English: It’s not possible for me to make him smile
Kannada: avanannu nagisalu nanninda sAdhya illa

Tulu: enk ninan madaperae Apuji
English: I can’t forget you (It’s not possible for me to forget you)
Kannada: nanage ninnanu mareyalikke Aguvudilla

Tulu: enk buliperae barpuNDu
English: I feel like to cry
Kannada: nanage aLu bartade

Tulu: ireg tiNDrae (tiNyarae) dAla bODe?
English: Do you want anything to eat?
Kannada: nimage tinnalikke EnAdrU bEka?

‘bODu’ is a modal verb in Tulu which means ‘want’, ‘need’. Its opposite is ‘boDchi’ which means ‘not wanted’, ‘need not’.

Examples:

Tulu: enk nIr bODu
English: I want water
Kannada: nanage nIru bEku

Tulu: nikk chA bODa?
Enlglish: Do you want tea?
Kannda: ninage chaha bEka?

Tulu: enk chA boDchi, kAphi bODu
English: I don’t want tea, I want coffee
Kannda: nanage chaha bEDa, kAphi bEku

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

If you need more sentences translated in Tulu, please leave a comment. If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu J

See you next week!


solmelu!