Sunday, 10 April 2016

Tulu Lesson 12: Reflexive Verbs

namaskAra!

Hello everyone, welcome back!

Last week we have learned how to form causative verbs in Tulu. Today we are going to learn another verb form. Reflexive verb is a verb whose direct object is the same as its subject. It indicates that a person is performing the action for himself/herself.

learn tulu

Reflexive form is formed by adding the suffix ‘oNu’ to the verb stem of Simple Past Tense. The suffix ‘oNu’ is derived from the auxiliary verb ‘koNu’ (koNuni – To hold).

When you remove personal endings from verb conjugations, you will get the verb stem. Now let us take the verb ‘malpu’ (malpuni – to do/make). In Simple Past tense it is conjugated as ‘maltae’, ‘malte’, ‘maltal’, ‘malter’ etc. If you remove personal endings, you will get the verb stem ‘malt’.

malt + oNu = maltoNu – To do/make for oneself (Kannada: mADikoLLu)

As we learned before, there are three different forms of verb conjugation in Simple Past tense.

1. Verbs ending in ‘pu’

To form verb stem of Simple Past Tense, replace ‘pu’ with ‘t’.

kalpu (kalpuni- To learn)

kalpu >>> kalt

kalt + oNu = kaltoNu – To learn for oneself (Kannada: kalituko)

deppu (deppuni - To remove/take out)

deppu >>> dett

dett + oNu = dettoNu – To take for oneself/accept (Kannada: tegeduko)


2. Verbs ending in ‘N’

To form verb stem of Simple Past Tense, add ‘D’ sound to root verb.

tiN (tiNpini – To eat)

tiN + D >>> tiND

tiND + oNu = tiNDoNu - To eat for oneself (Kannada: tinduko)

kEN (kENuni – To hear/ask)

kEN + D >>> kEND

kEND + oNu = kENDoNu – To ask/hear for oneself (Kannada: kELiko)

3. All other verbs.

To form verb stem of Simple Past Tense, add ‘i’ sound to root verb.

par (parpini – To drink)

par + i >>> pari

However, when adding the suffix ‘oNu’, the final vowel ‘i’ is removed.

par(i) + oNu = paroNu – To drink for oneself (Kannada: kuDidukO)

tU (tUpini – To see)

tU(i) + oNu = tUvoNu – To take care/look after oneself (nODiko)

tAng (tAnguni – To tolerate)

tAng(i) + oNu = tAngoNu – To tolerate for oneself (Kannada: sahisiko)

patt (pattuni – To catch)

patt(i) + oNu = pattoNu – To hold

We can also form reflexive form of causative verbs.

malpA (malpAvuni – cause to do/make)

malpA(i) + oNu = malpAvonu – cause to do/make for oneself (Kannada: mADisiko)

Other than this the verb ‘koNu’is also used in forming compound verbs.


Examples:

edur + koNu = edkoNu – To welcome (Kannada: svAgatisu/edurugoLLu)
(edur = front)

kai + koNu = kaikoNu – To undertake (Kannada: kaigoLLu)
(kai = hand)


The reflexive verbs usually used with reflexive pronouns ‘tAn’ (himself/herself/itself) and ‘tankulu’ (themselves). Declensions of these pronouns are same as ‘yAn’ (I) and ‘enkulu’ (We).

Reflexive verbs are conjugated in the same way like Class B verbs in Simple Present/Future Tense and like verbs ending in ‘N’ in Simple Past Tense.

Examples:

yAn detoNuvae – I take for myself/I will take for myself
au/undu detoNuNDu – It takes for itself/It will take for itself
I tAngoNuja– You don’t tolerate/You will not tolerate
nama/enkulu tAngoNuja – We don’t tolerate/We will not tolerate
Aye/imbe maltoNe – He will probably do for himself
au/undu maltoNu – It will probably do for itself
Al/imbal dettoNayal - She will probably not take for herself
au/undu dettoNand – It will probably not take for itself
nama/enkulu malpAvoNDa – We caused to make for ourselves
au/undu malpAvoND – It caused to make for itself
Ir/nikulu tUvoNDijar– You did not take care of yourselves
undekulu/aikulu tUvoNDija – They did not take care of theirselves

Tulu: rAme onji posa kAr dettoNuve
English: Rama will purchase a new car (for himself)
Kannada: rAma ondu hosa kAru takoLLuttAne

Tulu: Ar enDa nUdu rupAyi sAla dettoNDer
English: He/She borrowed Rs. 100 from me.
Kannada: avaru nanninda nUru rupAyi sAla takoNDru

Tulu: I bUkulen vontae pattoNuvara?
English: Can (will) you hold these books for a moment?
Kannada: I pustakagaLannu svalpa hiDidukoLLuttIra?

Tulu: akulu parbogu posa angi pollAvoNDer
English: They had a new dress sewed for festival (for themselves). 
Kannada: avaru habbakke hosa angi holisikoNDru

Tulu: Aye tanna bElae tAn maltoNDe
English: He did his work (for himself)
Kannada: avanu tanna kelasa tAnu mADikoNDa)

Tulu: Ar dEverDa vara paDeyoNDer
English: He/She got a boon from God for himself/herself.
Kannada: avaru dEvarinda vara paDedukoNDaru

Tulu: akulu oryenori AkoNDer
English: They beat each other.
Kannada: avaru obbarannobbaru hoDedukoNDru

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.


See you next week! 

No comments:

Post a comment