Friday, 7 October 2016

Tulu Lesson 36: Subjunctive Mood - “If”

namaskAra! Welcome back!

Today we will learn how to translate ‘if’ in Tulu. Look at the following examples:

If you call me, I will come

If he comes, tell me

If I help you, will you help me?

As you see, we have two sentences. We have ‘If’ clause at one side and main clause at the other. In Tulu ‘If’ clause can be formed by adding the suffix ‘Da’ to the verb conjugations in all tenses.

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malpu (malpuni) – To do

Ir malpuvar – You do / You will do

Ir malpuvarDa – If you do

paN (paNpini) – To tell / say

Ar paNDer – He/She said

Ar paNDerDa – If he/she said

Alright! Let us conjugate the verb ‘bar’ (barpini - To do) in subjunctive mood in all tenses.

Present/Future: Positive

yAn barpeDa – If I come
I barpaDa – If you come
Aye/imbe barpeDa – If he comes
Al/mOlu barpalDa – If she comes
au/undu barpuNDa (barpuNDu + Da) – If it comes
nama/enkulu barpaDa – If we come
Ir/nikulu barparDa – If you come
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr barperDa – If they come
undekulu/aikulu barpaDa – If they come

Present/Future: Negative

yAn barpujeDa – If I don't come
I barpujaDa – If you don't come
Aye/imbe barpujeDa – If he doesn't come
Al/mOlu barpujalDa – If she doesn't come
au/undu barpujiDa – If it doesn't come
nama/enkulu barpujaDa – If we don't come
Ir/nikulu barpujarDa – If you don't come
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr barpujerDa – If they don't come
undekulu/aikulu barpujaDa – If they don't come

Past: Positive

yAn batteDa – If I came
I battaDa – If you came
Aye/imbe batteDa – If he came
Al/mOlu battalDa – If she came
au/undu batt’NDa (batt’ND + Da) – If it came
nama/enkulu battaDa – If we came
Ir/nikulu battarDa – If you came
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr batterDa – If they came
undekulu/aikulu battaDa – If they came

Past: Negative

yAn battijeDa – If I didn't come
I battijaDa – If you didn't come
Aye/imbe battijeDa – If he didn't come
Al/mOlu battijalDa – If she didn't come
au/undu battijiDa – If it didn't come
nama/enkulu battijaDa – If we didn't come
Ir/nikulu battijarDa – If you didn't come
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr battijerDa – If they didn't come
undekulu/aikulu battijaDa – If they didn't come

Past Perfect: Positive

yAn baideDa – If I had come
I baidaDa – If you had come
Aye/imbe baideDa – If he had come
Al/mOlu baidalDa – If she had come
au/undu baid’NDa (baid’ND + Da) – If it had come
nama/enkulu baidaDa – If we had come
Ir/nikulu baidarDa – If you had come
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr baiderDa – If they had come
undekulu/aikulu baidaDa – If they had come

Past Perfect: Negative

yAn baidijeDa – If I had not come
I baidijaDa – If you had not come
Aye/imbe baidijeDa – If he had not come
Al/mOlu baidijalDa – If she had not come
au/undu baidijiDa – If it had not come
nama/enkulu baidijaDa – If we had not come
Ir/nikulu baidijarDa – If you had not come
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr baidijerDa – If they had not come
undekulu/aikulu baidijaDa – If they had not come

Note: In Tulu we use Present Perfect with 'If' clause while in English it is Past Perfect.

One more example:

bUru (bUruni) – To fall

Present/Future: Positive

yAn bUruveDa – If I fall
I bUruvaDa – If you fall
Aye/imbe bUruveDa – If he falls
Al/mOlu bUruvalDa – If she falls
au/undu bUruNDa (bUruNDu + Da) – If it falls
nama/enkulu bUruvaDa – If we fall
Ir/nikulu bUruvarDa – If you fall
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr bUruverDa – If they fall
undekulu/aikulu bUruvaDa – If they fall

Present/Future: Negative

yAn bUrujeDa – If I don't fall
I bUrujaDa – If you don't fall
Aye/imbe bUrujeDa – If he doesn't fall
Al/mOlu bUrujalDa – If she doesn't fall
au/undu bUrujiDa – If it doesn't fall
nama/enkulu bUrujaDa – If we don't fall
Ir/nikulu bUrujarDa – If you don't fall
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr bUrujerDa – If they don't fall
undekulu/aikulu bUrujaDa – If they don't fall

Past: Positive

yAn bUriyeDa – If I fell
I bUriyaDa – If you fell
Aye/imbe bUriyeDa – If he fell
Al/mOlu bUriyalDa – If she fell
au/undu bUr’NDa (bUr’ND + Da) – If it fell
nama/enkulu bUriyaDa – If we fell
Ir/nikulu bUriyarDa – If you fell
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr bUriyerDa – If they fell
undekulu/aikulu bUriyaDa – If they fell

Past: Negative

yAn bUrijeDa – If I didn't fall
I bUrijaDa – If you didn't fall
Aye/imbe bUrijeDa – If he didn't fall
Al/mOlu bUrijalDa – If she didn't fall
au/undu bUrijiDa – If it didn't fall
nama/enkulu bUrijaDa – If we didn't fall
Ir/nikulu bUrijarDa – If you didn't fall
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr bUrijerDa – If they didn't fall
undekulu/aikulu bUrijaDa – If they didn't fall

Past Perfect: Positive

yAn bUrdeDa – If I had fallen
I bUrdaDa – If you had fallen
Aye/imbe bUrdeDa – If he had fallen
Al/mOlu bUrdalDa – If she had fallen
au/undu bUrd’NDa (bUrd’ND + Da) – If it had fallen
nama/enkulu bUrdaDa – If we had fallen
Ir/nikulu bUrdarDa – If you had fallen
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr bUrderDa – If they had fallen
undekulu/aikulu bUrdaDa – If they had fallen

Past Perfect: Negative

yAn bUrdijeDa – If I had not fallen
I bUrdijaDa – If you had not fallen
Aye/imbe bUrdijeDa – If he had not fallen
Al/mOlu bUrdijalDa – If she had not fallen
au/undu bUrdijiDa – If it had not fallen
nama/enkulu bUrdijaDa – If we had not fallen
Ir/nikulu bUrdijarDa – If you had not fallen
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr bUrdijerDa – If they had not fallen
undekulu/aikulu bUrdijaDa – If they had not fallen

Now let us translate the following 3 sentences in Tulu:

1. If you call me, I will come

You call me – I enan leppuva
I will come – Yan barpae

Tulu: I enan leppuvaDa, yAn barpae
English: If you call me, I will come
Kannada: nInu nannannu karedare, nAnu bartEne

2. If he comes, tell me

He comes – Aye barpe
Tell me – eNDa paN

Tulu: Aye barpeDa eNDa paN
English: If he comes, tell me
Kannada: avanu bandare, nanage hELu

3. If I help you, will you help me?

I help you – yAn nikk sAya malpuvae
Will you help me? – I enk sAya malpuvana?

Tulu: yAn nikk sAya malpuveDa, I enk sAya malpuvana?
English: If I help you, will you help me?
Kannada: nAnu ninage sahAya mADidare, nInu nanage sahAya mADuttIya?

The above translated sentences in Tulu are correct. However, normally in spoken Tulu, the third person neuter past tense singular (like batt’NDa, bUr’NDa) used for all persons in all tenses regardless of singular or plural. So above 3 examples can also be translated to Tulu as given below:

Tulu: I enan lett’NDa, yAn barpae
English: If you call me, I will come
Kannada: nInu nannannu karedare, nAnu bartEne

Tulu: Aye batt’NDa, eNDa paN
English: If he comes, tell me
Kannada: avanu bandare, nanage hELu

Tulu: yAn nikk sAya malt’NDa, I enk sAya malpuvana?
English: If I help you, will you help me?
Kannada: nAnu ninage sahAya mADidare, nInu nanage sahAya mADuttIya?

As you see, above sentences are future conditional sentences, but we used the third person neuter past tense singular (lett’NDa, batt’NDa and malt’NDa) while translating ‘If’ clause. Today we are learning only future conditional sentences. Next week we will go to the past conditional sentences.

More Examples:

Tulu: I Od’NDa, parIksheD pAs Apa
English: If you study, you will pass the exam
Kannada: nInu Odidre, parIksheyalli pAs AgtIya

Tulu: I OdijiDa, parIksheD fail Apa
English: If you don’t read, you will fail the exam
Kannada: nInu Odlilladre, parIksheyalli fail AgtIya

Tulu: barsa batt’NDa, yAn chaNDi Apae
English: If it rains, I will get wet
Kannada: maLe bandre, nAnu odde AgtEne

Tulu: dAla samasyae itt’NDa enk paNle
English: If you have any problem, tell me
Kannada: EnAdrU samasye iddare nanage hELi

Tulu: Erla batt’NDa, enan leppu
English: If anyone comes, call me  
Kannada: yArAdrU bandre, nannannu kari

Tulu: I ellae batt’NDa, enk teripAv
English: If you come tomorrow, let me know (once you came)
Kannada: nInu nALe bandre, nanage tiLisu

Tulu: I ellae barpaDa, enk teripAv (Here we have to use future tense ‘barpaDa’ in the ‘If’ clause, since it expreses willingness or a wish)
English: If you will come tomorrow, let me know (in advance)
Kannada: nInu nALe barOdAdre, nanage tiLisu

Tulu: Aye barpeDa baraD (Again this sentence expreses a wish)
English: If he wants, let him come
Kannada: avanu barOdAdre, barali

Tulu: ANDa, enk onji sAya malpuvana?
English: If possible, can you do me a favor?
Kannada: Adre, nanage ondu sahAya mADuttIya?

Tulu: ANDa bayyag tikvae
English: If possible, I will meet you in the evening
Kannada: Adre sanje sigtEne

Tulu: dAla bODANDa (bODu + ANDa), enan leppule
English: If you need anything, call me
Kannada: EnAdrU bEkiddre, nannannu kariri

Tulu: I att’Da, bEtae Er?
English: If not you, who else?
Kannada: nInu alladidre, bEre yAru?

Following words are frequently used with ‘if’ clause in Tulu:

1. onji vElae / onjelae = By chance / In case (Kannada: ondu vELe)


Tulu: onji vElae barsa batt’NDa, yAn bannaga portAvu (portu + Avu)
English: In case it rains, I may get late
Kannada: ondu vELe maLe bandre, nAnu baruvAga taDa AdItu

2. mini = by any chance (Kannada: EnAdrU)

The word ‘mini’ may have different meanings when used in sentences.


Tulu: nikk mini gottuNDa?
Englsih: Do you know by any chance?
Kannada: ninage EnAdrU gottideya?

Tulu: enaDd mini Avand
English: It’s not possible for me in any case
Kannada: nanninda antU sAdhya illa

Tulu: akulu mini baruvera?
English: Will they come by any chance?
Kannada: avaru EnAdrU bandAra?

Tulu: yAn bannaga portANDa mini, neroDchi
English: If by any chance I am late, don’t scold me
Kannada: nAnu baruvAga EnAdrU taDa Adre, baibEDa

Tulu: onji vElae yAn bannaga portANDa mini, enk kApoDchi
English: If by any chance I am late, don’t wait for me
Kannada: ondu vELe nAnu baruvAga EnAdrU taDa Adre, nanage kAyabEDa

3. mAtra = Only (Kannada: mAtra)


Tulu: I lett’NDa mAtra barpae
English: I will come only if you call me
Kannada: nInu karedare mAtra bartEne

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See you next week!


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