Friday, 26 August 2016

Tulu Lesson 31: Postpositions

namaskAra! Welcome back!

In Tulu, we do not use prepositions, rather we use postpositions. Postpositions are used the same way as prepositions in English (Examples: for you, in front of the house, between us, according to me, before dinner, after death etc.), but they sit after the word that they modify. Generally postpositions are used to express relationship between a noun or pronoun and other parts of the sentence.

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1. Postpositions used with ablative or instrumental case (suffix ‘Dd’):

dumbu – Before
bokka – after, afterwards
inchi – onwards
Atra – Because of

Tulu: ninDd dumbu yAn baidae
English: I have come before you
Kannada: ninaginta modalu nAnu bandiddEne

Tulu: enaDd bokka I battini
Engslish: You came after me
Kannada: nanna nantara nInu bandaddu

Tulu: madyAnaDd bokka tikk’ga
English: Let us meet in the afternoon
Kannada: madhyAnada mEle sigONa

Tulu: elleDd bokka yAn barpujae
English: I will not come from tomorrow onwards
Kannada: nALeyinda nAnu baruvudilla

Tulu: aiDd bokka yAn Ayen tUtijae
English: After that, I have never seen him
Kannada: adara nantara nAnu avanannu nODilla

Tulu: kODeDdinchi barsa baronduNDu
English: It is raining from yesterday onwards.
Kannada: ninneyinda maLe bartA ide

Tulu: ekADdinchi nikk kAtondullae
English: I have been waiting for you from that time
Kannada: Agadinda ninage kAytA iddEne

Tulu: elleDdinchi yAn barpujae
English: I will not come from tomorrow onwards
Kannada: nALeyinda nAnu baruvudilla

Tulu: ninaDdAtra enk sukha ijji
English: Because of you I am not happy
Kannada: ninnindAgi  nanage nemmadi illa

Tulu: ayeDdAtra enk barrae Ayiji
English: Because of him, I could not come
Kannada: avanindAgi nanage baralikke Agalilla

These postpositions can also be used with verbals.

Infinitives (1st form) + Dd + dumbu

barpineDd dumbu (barpini + Dd + dumbu) – Before coming
tUpineDd dumbu (tUpini + Dd + dumbu) – Before seeing
saipineDd dumbu (saipini + Dd + dumbu) – Before dying

Tulu: Aye barpineDd dumbu yAn pOpae
English: I will leave (go) before he comes
Kannada: avanu baruvudakinta modalu nAnu hOgtEne

Tulu: barsa barpineDd dumbu ill sEruve
English: Before it rains, I will be home
Kannada: maLe baruvudakinta modalu nAnu mane sErtEne

Tulu: Aye kENuneDd dumbu koru
English: Before he asks, give it to him
Kannada: avanu kELuvudakinta modalu koDu

Infinitives (1st form) + Dd + bokka

                OR

Participles + bokka

battineDd bokka (battini + Dd + bokka) – After came
batti bokka (batti + bokka) – After came / Once came
pOyineDd bokka – After went
pOyi bokka – After went / Once went

Tulu: Aye battineDd bokka yAn pOyini
English: After he came, I went
Kannada: avanu banda mEle nAnu hOdaddu

Tulu: ninan tUyi bokka enk samadAna AND
English: After I saw you, I am feeling better
Kannada: ninnannu nODida mEle, nanage nemmadi Aytu

Tulu: ill etti bokka phone malpu
English: Once you reach home, call me
Kannada: mane talapida mEle phone mADu

Infinitives (1st form) + Dd + inchi

battineDdinchi (battini + Dd + inchi) – Since came / From the time when came

Tulu: akulu battineDdinchi telitonduller
English: They have been laughing since they came
Kannada: avaru bandAgininda nagtA iddAre

Tulu: Aye dubai’g pOyineDdinchi phone malt’dije
English: He has not called me since he went Dubai
Kannada: avanu dubai’ge hOdAgininda phone mADilla

Infinitives (1st form) + Dd + Atra

battineDdAtra (battini + Dd + Atra) – Because came

Tulu: Ir paNDineDdAtra yAn pOyini
English: I went because you told me
Kannada: nIvu hELidarindAgi nAnu hOde

Tulu: I barpineDdAtra yAn barondullae
English: I am coming because you are coming
Kannada: nInu baruvudarindAgi nAnu bartA iddEne

2. Postpositions used with dative case (suffix ‘k/g’):

eduru – against
Ad – for
Atra – for the sake of
bODAd  - for the sake of

Tulu: yAn Epagla nikk eduru untayae
English: I will never stand against you
Kannada: nAnu yAvattigU ninage eduru nillenu

Tulu: nikkAd yAn battini
English: I came for you
Kannada: ninagAgi nAnu bandaddu

Tulu: kAs’gAtra jana dAla malper
English: People may do anything for the sake of money
Kannada: duDDigOskara jana EnU mADiyAru

Tulu: enkAtra manipandae kullu
English: Keep quiet for the sake of me
Kannada: nanagOskara summaniru

Tulu: dEshogu bODAd prANa tyAga malte
English: He sacrified his life for the country 
Kannada: dEshakke bEkAgi prANa tyAga mADida

Tulu: Ayeg bODAd yAn battae
Englsih: I came for him
Kannada: avanige bEkAgi nAnu bande

Following postpositions can also be used with verbals.

Infinitives (2nd form) + boDAd

               OR

Infinitives (2nd form) + g + Atra

pAterrae bODAd – for the sake of speaking
pAterregAtra (pAterrae + g + Atra ) – for the sake of speaking
pOyerae bODAd  - for the sake of going
pOyeregAtra – for the sake of going

Tulu: yAn niNDa paterrae bODAd battae
English: I came for the sake of speaking with you
Kannada: nAnu ninnondige mAtannADalikkOskara bande

Tulu: yAn ninan tUyeregAtra battae
English: I came for the sake of seeing you
Kannada: nAnu ninnannu nODalikkOskara bande

3. Postpositions used with genitive case (suffix 'na/ta/da'):

kaital – near
oTTugu – together, with
lekka / leka – Like, As
baggae/vishayoDu/vichAroDu – about / regarding / concerning
prakAra – As per
pagateg / badal’g - instead of
mukhAntra – through
eduru – in front of
sutta / suttala – around
suttamutta – around
ulai – in / inside
pidai – out / outside
piravu – behind
aDe/aDeg – towards / to the place of 
anchi/anchig – towards
mitt – on / above
tirt – below
aDiT - under
bariT – next to, beside
naDuTu – in the middle

Tulu: Ayena kaital pOvoDchi
English: Don’t go near him
Kannada: avana hattira hOgabEDa

Tulu: ennoTTugu bala
Englsih: Come with me
Kannada: nanna jote bA

Tulu: aklenoTTugu gobboDchi
English: Don’t play with them
Kannada: avaroTTige ADabEDa

Tulu: ninaleka yAn ijjae
English: I am not like you
Kannada: ninna hAge nAnu illa

Tulu: bangArdaleka raisuNDu
English: It’s shining like gold            
Kannada: chiNNadante hoLeyuttade

Tulu: namma dEshada vishayoDu Ar pAteriyer
English: He/She spoke regarding our country
Kannada: namma dEshada vishayadalli avaru mAtADidaru

Tulu: enna bagge nikk gottuji
English: You don’t know about me
Kannada: nanna bagge ninage gottilla

Tulu: enna prakAra undu sari att
English: As per me this is not correct
Kannada: nanna prakAra idu sari alla

Tulu: ammena pagateg mage batte
English: The son came instead of his father
Kannada: tandeya badalige maga banda

Tulu: TV bokka Radio’da mukhAntra janokleg suddi tikkuNDu
English: Through TV and Radio people will get news.
Kannada: TV mattu Radio’da mukhAntra janarige suddi siguttade

Tulu: yAn ninna illada eduru ullae
English: I am in front of your house
Kannada: nAnu ninna maneya eduru iddEne

Tulu: kaNDoda sutta bEli uNDu
English: There is a fence around the field.
Kannada: gaddeya suttalU bEli ide

Tulu: enna suttamutta Erla ijjer
English: No one is there around me
Kannada: nanna suttamutta yArU illa

Tulu: akulu illada ulai pOyer
English: They went inside the house
Kannada: avaru maneya oLage hOdaru

Tulu: akulu illada pidai kAtonduller
English: They are waiting outside the house
Kannada: avaru maneya horage kAytA iddAre

Tulu: ninna piravu tUla
English: look behind you
Kannada: ninna hinde nOdu

Tulu: sudetaDe pOvodchi
English: Don’t go to the riverside
Kannada: nadi kaDe hOgabEda

Tulu: tOTadanchi pOvondullae
English: I am going towards the garden
Kannada: tOTadAche hOgtA iddEne

Tulu: mEjida mitt pustaka uNDu
English: There is a book on the table
Kannada: mEjina mEle pustaka ide

Tulu: guDDeda tirt onji kerae uNDu
English: There is a pond below the mountain
Kannada: guDDada keLage ondu kere ide

Tulu: mEjida aDiT puchchae uNDu
English: There is a cat under the table
Kannada: mEjina aDiyalli bekku ide

Tulu: ramEshe, surEshena bariT kullonde
English: Ramesh has sat beside Suresh
Kannada: ramEsha, surEshana badiyalli kUtiddAne

Tulu: surEshe, ramEshe bokka jayantena naDuT kullonde
English: Suresh has sat between Ramesh and Jayanth.
Kannada: surEsha, ramEsha mattu jayantana madyadalli kUtiddAne

Following postpositions can also be used with verbals.

Participles + leka

tUyi leka – Like saw
batti leka – Like came
barpi leka – Like coming
paNpi leka – Like saying

Tulu: yAn paNDi leka malpu
English: Do as I said
Kannada: nAnu hELida hAge mADu

Tulu: yAn malpu leka malpu
English: Do like I do
Kannada: nAnu mADuva hAge mADu

Tulu: ninan Ola tUyi leka uNDu
English: It seems like I saw you somewhere
Kannada: ninnannu ellO nODida hAge ide

Participles + baggae/vishayoDu/vichAroDu

paNDina vishayoDu  – about said
kENDina bagge – about heard

Tulu: yAn paNDina vishayODu AlOchanae malpu
English: Think about what I said
Kannada: nAnu hELida vishayadalli yOchane mADu

Tulu: I tUyina baggae EreDala paNoDchi
English: Don’t tell anyone about what you saw
Kannada: nInu nODida bagge yArigU hELabEDa

Participles + aDe / anchi

paNpinaDe (paNpina + aDe) – To the place of which someone/something is saying
paNDinaDe (paNDina + aDe) - To the place of which someone/something said   
pantinaDe (pantina + aDe) – To the place of which someone/something has said
battinanchi (battina + anchi) – Towards the place of which someone/something came

Tulu: yAn paNDinaDe pOla
English: Go to the place of which I said
Kannada: nAnu hELida kaDe hOgu

Tulu: Aye pOyinanchi pOvoDchi
English:  Don’t go towards the place where he went
Kannada: avanu hOda kaDe hOgabEDa
 
4. Postpositions used with basic form of nouns:

muTTa / muTa – up to, till
ormae / iDi – Throughout, all over
ijjandae / dAntae – Without

Tulu: Aye enna ill muTa batte
English: He came as far as my house
Kannada: avanu nanna maneya varege banda

Tulu: yAn bus stand muTa pOyae
English: I went up to the bust stand
Kannada: nAnu bus stand varege hOde

Tulu: patt gaNTae muTa kApuvae
Englsih: I will wait till 10 O’clock
Kannada: hattu gaNTe varege kAyuttEne

Tulu: Ar tulunADormae pudar paDeyinAr
English: He/She is popular all over Tulu NaDu
Kannada: avaru tulunADinAdyanta hesaru paDedavaru

Tulu: I suddi Urormae paraD’ND
English: This news spread throughout the village
Kannada: I suddi UrellA haraDitu

Tulu: I dAntae (ijjandae) yAn bad’kayae
Englsih: Without you I can’t live
Kannada: nInu illade nAnu badukenu

Tulu: enna sAya dAntae nikk genderae sAdya ijji
English: Without my help you cannot win
Kannada: nanna sahAya illade ninage gellalu sAdyavilla

Following postpositions can also be used with verbals.

Participles + muTa

barpina muTa – till coming
battina muTa - till came
tiNpina muTa - till eating

In Tulu we have another form to express the point of time at which the action terminates. The suffix ‘enge’ is added to participles.

Participles + enge

malpuna + enge = malpunenge -  till doing
maltina + enge = maltinenge - till did
baripna + enge = barpinenge – till coming
battina + enge = battinenge OR bannenge – till came

Tulu: akulu bannenge kApula
English: Wait until they come
Kannada: avaru baruva varege kAyu

Tulu: yAn unden malpunenge untula
English: Wait until I make this.
Kannada: nAnu idannu mADuva varege nillu

Tulu: yAn paNpinenge ODela pOvoDchi
English: Don’t go anywhere until I tell you
Kannada: nAnu hELuva varege ellU hOgabEDa



5. Postpositions used with all the cases:

attandae – Beside, apart from , without

Tulu: ninan attandae bEtae Eren leppoDu?
Englsh: Whom else should I call apart from you?
Kannada: ninnannu allade bEre yArannu kareyali?

Tulu: I attandae bEtae Er uller enk?
English: Apart from you who else is there for me?
Kannada: nInu allade bEre yAriddAre nanage?

Tulu: ninaDd attandae bEtae Eregla unden malperae sAdya ijji
English: Besides you no one can do this
Kannada: nInu allade bErae yArigU idannu mADalu sAdya illa

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See you next week!


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