Friday, 26 February 2016

Tulu Lesson 6: Numbers, Ordinal Numbers, Telling the Time

namaskAra! encha ullar?

Hopefully you are enjoying the lessons. Please let me know if you have any questions that you think I can answer!

Last week we learnt numbers from 1 to 20 in Tulu. Today we are going to learn more numbers, ordinal numbers and how to tell the time.  

onji – 1
raDD – 2
mUji – 3
nAl – 4
ain – 5
Aji – 6
El – 7
enma – 8
orumba – 9
patt – 10
pattonji – 11
padiraDD – 12
padimUji – 13
padinAl – 14
padinain – 15
padinAji – 16
padinEl – 17
padinenma – 18
padinorumba – 19
irva – 20

irvattonji - 21
irvatraDD - 22
irvatmUji - 23
irvatnAl - 24
irvattain - 25
irvattAji - 26
irvattEl - 27
iravattenma - 28
irvattorumba - 29
muppa - 30
muppattonji - 31
muppatraDD - 32
…………
muppattorumba - 39
nalpa - 40
nalpattonji - 41
nalpatraDD - 42
………..
nalpattorumba - 49
aiva - 50
aivattonji - 51
aivatraDD - 52
…………..
aivattorumba - 59
ajipa - 60
ajipattonji - 61
ajipatraDD - 62
………….
ajipattorumba - 69
elpa - 70
elpattonji - 71
elpatraDD - 72
………….
elpattorumba - 79
enpa - 80
enpattonji - 81
enpatraDD - 82
……………
enpattorumba - 89
sonpa - 90
sonpattonji - 91
sonpatraDD - 92
…………..
sonpattorumba - 99
nUdu - 100

nUta onji - 101
nUta raDD - 102
nUta patt - 110
nUta sonpa - 190
irnUdu - 200
irnUta onji - 201
irnUta sonpa - 290
munnUdu - 300
nAlnUdu - 400
ainUdu - 500
AjinUdu - 600
ElnUdu - 700
enmanUdu - 800
orumbanUdu - 900
sAra – 1000
sArattonji - 1001
patt sAra – 10,000
laksha – 1,00,000
patt laksha - 10,00,000
kOTi – 1,00,00,000

These are the cardinal numbers in Tulu. We use cardinal numbers for counting or to tell ‘how many’ of something or to tell the quantity.

Examples:

Tulu: raDD kai
English: two hands
Kannada: eraDu kai

Tulu: Aye dinoku patt gaNTae benpe
English: He works 10 hour a day.
Kannada: avanu dinakke hattu gaNTe duDiyuttAne
duDiyuttAne

Tulu: Aye vArogu 5 dina benpe
English: He works 5 days a week.
Kannada: avanu vArakke 5 dina duDiyuttAne

Tulu: patt kilo ari
English: 10 KG rice
Kannada: hattu KG akki

Tulu: yAn raDD gaNTae kApuvae
English: I will wait for 2 hours.
Kannada: nAnu eraDu gaNTe kAyuttEne

Whenever we want to add numbers to a neuter noun, we can avoid adding plural suffix and put the number before the noun.

Examples:
illulu – houses 
nAl ill – Four houses

kaikulu – hands
raDD kai – two hands

enk raDD kai uNDu – I have two hands.

We never say ‘enk raDD kaikulu ulla’ in Tulu.

Tulu: mEjida mitt raDD pustaka uNDu
English: There are two books on the table.
Kannada: mEjina mEle eraDu pustaka ide

Tulu: enkleDa patt tArae uNDu
English: We have ten coconut trees.
Kannada: nammalli hattu tengina mara ide

When speaking about human beings we have different forms in Tulu.

orye/ori – One (man) (Masc.)
orti – One (woman) (Fem.)
onji – One (thing) (Neu.)

irver – Two persons
mUver – Three persons
nAlver – Four persons
aiver – Five persons
Aji jana – Six persons
El jana – Seven persons
enma jana – Eight persons
orumba jana – Nine persons
patt jana – Ten persons.

From 5 upwards ‘jana’ is added to the number. We can also say raDD jana, mUji jana, nAl jana and ain jana. We also have ‘patter’, but it does not mean exactly 10 persons. It means ‘honorable citizens’ or ‘elders of the village’

Tulu: orye barpe, orye pOpe
English: One comes, one goes.
Kannada: obba bartAne, obba hOgtAne

Tulu: ori kalve
English: A thief
Kannada: obba kaLLa

Tulu: Aye ori sobage
English: He is a gentleman.
Kannada: avanu obba sabhyastha

Tulu: akulu oryeDori  pAterujer
English: They don’t speak with each other.
Kannada: avaru obbarallobbaru matADuvudilla

Tulu: I oryena?
English: Are you alone?
Kannada: nInu obbana/oNTiya?

Tulu: Al orti ponnu
English: She is a girl
Kannada: avaLu ondu heNNu

Tulu: onji puchchae
English: A cat
Kannada: ondu bekku

Tulu: onji ill
English: A house
Kannada: ondu mane

Tulu: akulu irver dEvastAnogu pOyer
English: They both went to the temple.
Kannada: avaru ibbaru dEvastAnakke hOdaru

Ordinal numbers:

Ordinal numbers tell the order of how things are set, they show the position or the rank of something. We have to add suffix ‘ane’ to make ordinal numbers.

onjane – First
raDDane – Second
mUjane – Third
nAlane – Fourth
ainane – Fifth
Ajane – Sixth
Elane – Seventh
enmane – Eighth
orumbane – Ninth
pattane – Tenth
pattonjane – 11th
irvane – 20th

Al onjane klAs’D kalpuval – She is studying in first standard.

For ‘first’, we have also these words in Tulu: ‘suru’ and ‘kaDIr’.

kaDIra mage – First son 
suruta mage – First son 

‘suru’ is most commonly used in daily conversation.

onjane stAna – First place/rank 
onjane klAs – First standard
onjane nambar – First number
onjane mAligae – First floor

Tulu: suruta tingol
English: First month
Kannada: modala tngaLu

Tulu: suruttAye
English: The first one (Masculine)
Kannada: modalinava

Tulu: suruttAl
English: The first one (Feminine)
Kannada: modalinavaLu

Tulu: suruttau
English: The first one (Neuter)
Kannada: modalinadu

Tulu: suruta bAlae
English: First child
Kannada: modala magu

Tulu: mUjane klAs
English: Third standard
Kannada: mUrane klAsu

Tulu: mUjane mAligae
English: Third floor
Kannada: mUrane mahaDi

Tulu: mUjanettAye
English: The third one (Masculine)
Kannada: mUraneyava

Tulu: nAlanettAl
English: The fourth one (Feminine)
Kannada: nAlkaneyavaLu

Tulu: Ajanettau
English: The sixth one (Neuter)
Kannada: Araneyadu

Adverbial numerals:

ora – Once
raDD sarti – Twice
mUji sarti - Thrice
nAl sarti – Four times
patt sarti – Ten times
nUdu sarti – Hundred times.

To make adverbial numerals, we need to add ‘sarti’ to the number.

Tulu: Aye vArogu ora barpe
English: He comes once a week
Kannada: avanu vArakke omme bartAne

Tulu: kuDora (kuDa + ora) paNpana?
English: Will you tell me once more?
Kannada: innomme hELtIya?

Tulu: raDD sarti Oduvae
English: I will read it twice.
Kannada: eraDu sala OdtEne

Reading sums of money:

25 paisa – irvattain paisae/nAlanae
50 paisa – aiva paisae/enmanae
Rs. 1 – onji rupAy
Rs. 1.25 – onje kAl rupAy
Rs. 1.50 – onjarae rupAy
Rs. 1.75  – onje mukkal rupAy
Rs. 100 – nUdu rupAy
Rs. 1500 – onjarae sAra rupAy
Rs. 2500 – raDDarae sAra rupAy

kAl – Quarter
arae/arda – half
mukkAl – Three forth



Telling the time:

learn tulu

gaNTae raDD AND – It’s 2 o’clock
raDD ain – 2:05
raDD patt – 2:10
raDDe kAl – 2:15
raDD irva – 2:20
raDD irvattain – 2:25
raDDarae – 2:30
raDD nalpa – 2:40
kAl kammi mUji – 2:45
mUjeg patt nimisha uNDu – 2:50
mUjeg ain nimisha uNDu – 2:55
mUji 0 3:00
patt irva – 10:20
kAl kammi padiraDD – 11:45

Tulu: gaNTae EtAND?
English: What time is it?
Kannada: gaNTe eshTAytu?

Tulu: nAl patt AND
English: It’s four ten.
Kannada: nAlku hattu Aytu

Tulu: yAn raDD gaNTae muTa kApuvae
English: I will wait till 2 o’clock.
Kannada: nAnu eraDu gaNTe varege kAyuttEne

Tulu: yAn raDD gaNTae kApuvae English: I will wait for 2 hours.
Kannada: nAnu eraDu gaNte kAyuttEne

Tulu: Aye onji gaNTeg barpe
English: He will come at 1 o’clock.
Kannada: avanu ondu gaNTege baruttAne

Tulu: Aye onji gaNTeD barpe
English: He will come in an hour.
Kannada: avanu ondu gaNTeyalli baruttAne

Tulu: Aye onji gaNTedulai (gaNTeda + ulai) barpe
English: He will come within an hour.
Kannada: avanu ondu gaNTe oLage baruttAne

Tulu: yAn Epola kANDae El gaNTeg lakkuvae
English: I always wake up at 7 0’clock in the morning.
Kannada: nAnu yAvAgalU beLagge ELu gaNTege ELuttEne

Tulu: enma gaNTeg sAleg pOpae
English: I go to school at 8 o’clock.
Kannada: eNTu gaNTege shAlege hogtEne

New words:

kai - hand
ari - rice
mEji - Table
tArae - coconut tree
tArai - coconut
pustaka/bUku - book
kuDa - again
kuDora - once more/once again
kammi - less
muTa - till
ulai - inside

Click here to go to Vocabulary page.

All right! With this we come to the end of lesson 6. See you next week!


solmelu!

Friday, 19 February 2016

Tulu Lesson 5: More Interrogative Sentences in Simple Present Tense, Numbers from 1 to 20

namaskAra! encha ullar?

learn tulu

If anyone asked you how are you in Tulu, you can reply them ‘ushAr ullae’ or just ‘soukhya’. Both mean the same ‘I am fine’.

Also, instead of ‘encha ullar?’ you can ask ‘soukhyana?’ or ‘ushAr ullara?’.

You know Tulu has different subjective pronouns to speak with elders or strangers with respect. Ir - you, Ar (remote) – He/She, mEr (proximate) – He/She. But there is no separate verb conjugation for these pronouns. Verbs are conjugated like if it was plural.

nikulu gobbuvar – you play (plural) 
Ir gobbuvar – you play (giving respect) 

akulu/mokulu gobbuver (plural)
Ar/mEr gobbuver (giving respect) 

But in interrogative form of sentences when you speaking to elders/strangers with respect, you can optionally add ‘e’ or ‘ne’ instead of ‘a’ or ‘na’ at the end.

nikulu gobbuvara? – Do you play? (plural) 
Ir gobbuvare? – Do you play? (giving respect) 

It’s not compulsory; you can also say ‘Ir gobbuvara?’, but adding ‘e’ sound at the end makes it more polite and many prefer it while speaking to elders.

Aye gobbujena? – Doesn’t he play? 
Aye gobbujene? - Doesn’t he play? (when you speak with elders/strangers with respect)

soukhyana? – Are you fine? 
soukhyane? Are you fine? (with respect)

Now look at the following sentence.

He is a nice man, right?
He is a nice man, isn’t he?

This kind of questions can be asked in Tulu using ‘ata’.

att – No/It is not
ata? – Isn’t it/right?

Aye eDDae naramAni, ata? - He is a nice man, right?
Aye eDDae naramAni, ate? -  He is a nice man, right? (giving respect to the listener)

The answer can be and/att – Yes/No

Aye ellae barpe, ata? – He will come tomorrow, right?
Aye ellae barpe, ate? - He will come tomorrow, right? (giving respect to the listener)

The answer can be and/ijji – Yes/No

Now look at the following sentence:

Whether he will come or not?

This kind for questions can be asked in Tulu using ‘ijja’.

ijji - No/It is not
ijja? – isn’t it?/or not?

Aye barpe – He will come
Aye barpena? – Will he come?
Aye barpene? - Will he come? (giving respect to the listener)
Aye barpena, ijja? - Whether he will come or not?
Aye barpene, ijje? - Whether he will come or not? (giving respect to the listener)

All right! We are done with interrogative form of sentences in Simple Present tense. Now let us look at all type of sentences we have learnt so far:

yAn tulu pAtervae – I speak Tulu.
yAn tulu kalpuvae – I will learn Tulu
enk tulu barpuNDu – I know Tulu
enk tulu gottuNDu (gottu + uNDu) – I know Tulu

yAn tulu pAterujae – I don’t speak Tulu
yAn tulu kalpujae – I will not learn Tulu
enk tulu barpuji – I don’t know Tulu
enk tulu gottuji – I don’t know Tulu

I tulu kalpuvana? Will you learn Tulu?
Ir tulu kalpuvare? Will you learn Tulu?
nikk tulu barpuNDa? Do you know Tulu?
ireg tulu barpuNDe? Do you know Tulu?
nikk tulu gottuja? Don’t you know Tulu?
ireg tulu gottuje? Don’t you know Tulu?

nikk tulu gottuNData? (gottuNDu + ata) – You know Tulu, right?
ireg tulu gottuNDate? - You know Tulu, right?
nikk tulu barpujata? (barpuji + ata) – You don’t know Tulu, right?
ireg tulu barpujate? – You don’t know Tulu, right?

nikk tulu gottuNDa, ijja? - Whether you know Tulu or not?
ireg tulu barpunDe, ijje? - Whether you know Tulu or not?

yAn ellae kuDlag pOpae, Irla ennoTTugu barpare? – I will go to Mangalore tomorrow, will you too come along with me?
Avu, yAnla barpae – OK, I will come too.
ijji, enk Apuji – No, I can’t

Avu – OK
ApuNDu – It becomes/It will become
Apuji – It does not become/It will not become

yAn Doctor Apae – I will become a Doctor. 
yAn Doctor Apujae – I will not become a Doctor. 

But when used with Dative or Ablative case, it gives the meaning of ‘not possible’ or ‘can’t’

enk Apuji – I can’t. (It’s not possible for me)
enaDd Apuji – I can’t (It’s not possible by me)

Tulu: ninaDd dAla bElae Apuji
English: You can’t do any work. Kannada: ninninda EnU kelasa Agalla

Also, this verb is used to express feelings.

Tulu: enk khushi ApuNDu
English: I feel happy
Kannada: nanage khushi Agtade

Tulu: enk bEjAr ApuNDu
English: I feel sad
Kannada: nanage bEjar Agtade

Tulu: enk bEnae Apuji
English: I don’t feel pain.
Kannada: nanage nOvu Agalla

Tulu: enk badApuNDu (baDav + ApuNDu)
English: I feel hungry
Kannada: nanage hasivAgtade

Tulu: enk bAjel ApuNDu
English: I feel thirsty
Kannada: nanage bAyArike Agtade

Tulu: Ayeg tarae bEnae ApuNDu
English: He has head ache.
Kannada: avanige tale nOvu Agtade

More sentences in Simple Present/Future tense:

Tulu: Aye dinola kANDae daikleg nIr pADuve
English: He waters the plants every morning.
Kannada: avanu dinA beLagge giDagaLige nIru hAktAne

Tulu: Ar rAtrae benper, pagel’D jeppuver
English: He works at night and sleeps during the day.
Kannada: avaru rAtri duDitAre, hagalu malagtAre

Tulu: ninna jOkulu sAleg pOpera?
English: Do your children go to school?
Kannada: ninna makkaLu shAlege hOgtAra?

Tulu: irena jOkulu sAleg pOpere?
English: Do your children go to school? (with respect)
Kannada: nimma makkaLu shAlege hOgtAra?

Tulu: yAn bEga jeppuvena?
English: Do I sleep early?
Kannada: nAnu bEga malagtEna?

Tulu: yAn bEga jeppuvene?
English: Do I sleep early? (with respect)
Kannada: nAnu bEga malagtEna?

Tulu: akulu enan ini leppujer
English: They will not call me today
Kannada: avaru nannannu ivattu kareyalla

Tulu: Ar enan madapujer
English: He/She will not forget me
Kannada: avaru nannannu mareyalla

Tulu: yAn aleDa paNpae
English: I will tell her.
Kannada: nAnu avaLalli hELtEne

Tulu: Aye ninan kerpe
English: He will kill you
Kannada: avanu ninnannu koltAne

Tulu: yAn enna dOstina illaDe pOpae
English: I will go to my friend’s house
Kannada: nAnu nanna geLeyana manege hOgtEne

Tulu: enna amma enna bAlen tUper
English: My mom will look after my child
Kannada: nanna amma nanna maguvannu nODtAre

Tulu: I jOkulu bareper
English: These children will write.
Kannada: I makkaLu bareyuttAre

‘I’ and ‘A’ are demonstrative adjectives.
undu – This
I bAlae – This child
I jOkulu – These children
au – That
A bAlae – That child
A jOkulu – Those children


Numbers in Tulu:

If we learn numbers from one to twenty correctly we will have no problems with the rest of the numbers. So, please try to learn the first twenty numbers and you’ll have no more problems!

onji – One
raDD – Two
mUji – Three
nAl – Four
ain – Five
Aji – Six
El – Seven
enma – Eight
orumba – Nine
patt – Ten
pattonji – Eleven
padiraDD – Twelve
padimUji – Thirteen
padinAl – Fourteen
padinain – Fifteen
padinAji – Sixteen
padinEl – Seventeen
padinenma – Eighteen
padinorumba – Nineteen
irva – Twenty

Words used in today’s lesson:

eDDae – good
naramAni – man
gottu – knowledge/understanding
kuDla – Mangalore
Irla – you too
ennoTTugu (enna + oTTugu) - with me
khushi – happy
bEjAr – sad
bEnae – pain
baDav – Hunger
bAjel – thirst
tarae – head
dai – plant
daikulu – plants
nIr – water
rAtrae – night
pagel – day time
bAlae – child
jOkulu – children
ini – today
dOsti – friend

Click here to know verbs meaning.

All right! If you have any questions, feel free to comment. See you next week!


solmelu!

Saturday, 13 February 2016

Tulu Lesson 4: Negative and Interrogative in Simple Present Tense

Hello everyone! Welcome back!

Today we are going to learn negative and interrogative form of sentences in Simple Present tense. Before we start, let me tell you how to conjugate auxiliary verb ‘ippu/uppu’ (Infinitive: ippuni/uppuni – To be). There are two forms of this verb exist in the Simple Present tense: ‘uppu/ippu’ and ‘ul’.

1st form: ‘uppu’

yAn uppuvae – I am
I uppuva – You are
Aye/imbe uppuve – He is
Al/mOlu  uppuval – She is
au/undu  uppuNDu – It is
nama/enkulu  uppuva – We are
Ir/nikulu  uppuvar – You are
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr uppuver – They are
undekulu/aikulu uppuva – They are

This form is used in simple present tense and future tense.
Example:

Tulu: yAn Epola mUlu uppuvae
English: I am always here.
Kannada: nAnu yAvAgalU illi irtEne

Tulu: Aye ellae aulu uppuve
English: He will be there tomorrow.
Kannada: avanu nALe alli irtAne

2nd form: ‘ul’
yAn ullae – I am
I ulla – You are
Aye/imbe ulle – He is
Al/mOlu  ullal – She is
au/undu  uNDu – It is
nama/enkulu  ulla – We are
Ir/nikulu  ullar – You are
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr uller – They are
undekulu/aikulu ulla – They are

This form mainly used to tell about existence.

Tulu: yAn ullae
English: I am there (I am present)
Kannada: nAnu iddEne

Tulu: dEver uller –
English: God is there (God exists)
Kannada: dEvaru iddAre

Tulu: yAn mUlu ullae, I Olu ulla? –
English: I am here, Where are you?
Kannada: nAnu illi iddEne, nInu elli iddIya

tulu: maroTu manga uNDu
English: There is a monkey on the tree.
Kannada: maradalli kOti ide

Tulu: niNDa mast kAs uNDu
English: You have a lot of money
Kannada: ninnalli tumbA duDDu ide

Tulu: aklena illaD raDD nAyilu ulla
English: They have 2 dogs at there house.
Kannada: avara maneyalli eraDu nAyigaLu ive

Tulu: encha ulla?
English: How are you? (Informal)
Kannada: hEge iddIya?

Tulu: encha ullar?
English: How are you? (Formal)
Kannada: hEge iddIra?

Tulu: yAn ushAr ullae
English: I am fine.
Kannada: nAnu chennAgiddEne

So ‘uNDu’ means ‘it is’ and its opposite is ‘ijji’ which means ‘it is not’ or just ‘no’. 

yAn ijjae – I am not
I ijja – You are not
Aye/imbe ijje – He is not
Al/mOlu  ijjal – She is not
au/undu  ijji – It is not
nama/enkulu  ijja – We are not
Ir/nikulu  ijjar – You are not
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr ijjer – They are not
undekulu/aikulu ijja – They are not

This form mainly used to tell about non-existence.

Tulu: Aye ijje
English: He is not there. (He is absent)
Kannada: avanu illa

Tulu: dEver ijjer
English: God is not there (God does not exist)
Kannada: dEvaru illa

Tulu: eNDa kAs ijji
English: I don’t have money.
Kannada: nannalli duDDilla

Tulu: yAn UruDu ijjae
English: I am out of town.
Kannada: nAnu Uralli illa

Tulu: au sAdya ijji
English: It is not possible.
Kannada: adu sAdya illa

Now let us look at the personal endings for negative form of sentences in Simple Present tense.


Singular
Plural
Pronoun
Ending
Example: pO
Pronoun
Ending
Example: pO
First Person
yAn
ujae
pOpujae
nama/enkulu
uja
pOpuja
Second Person
I
uja
pOpuja
nikulu/Ir
ujar
pOpujar
Third Person
Masc.
Aye/imbe
uje
pOpuje
akulu/Ar/mokulu/mEr
ujer
pOpujer
Fem.
Al/mOlu
ujal
pOpujal
Neut.
au/undu
uji
pOpuji
aikulu/undekulu
uja
pOpuja

Note: You may see some people use ‘uji’ ending for first person singular, ‘yAn pOpuji’ instead of ‘yAn pOpujae’ though grammatically it is wrong.

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For Class A verbs the rules are same as explained in the previous lesson to conjugate the verbs in Simple Present tense, but all you need to change the personal endings to make it negative.

Root verb + p+ personal ending 
pO + p + ujae = pOpujae – I don’t go
bar+ p + ujae = barpujae – I don’t come

For Class B verbs, we don’t have to add ‘uv’ sound since personal ending starts from ‘u’ sound. We have to add personal endings directly to root verb.

Root verb + personal ending
mAr + ujae = mArujae – I don’t sell.
malpu + ujae = malpujae – I don’t do

Examples:

Tulu: yAn sAleg pOpujae.
English: I don’t go to school.
Kannada: nAnu shAlege hOgalla

Tulu: Aye rAtreD jeppuje
English: He doesn’t sleep at night.
Kannada: avanu rAtri malaguvudilla

Tulu: Al EreDala pAterujal
English: She doesn’t speak with anyone.
Kannada: avaLu yArallU mAtADuvudilla

Tulu: akulu chA parpujer
English: They don’t drink tea.
Kannada: avaru chahA kuDiyalla

Tulu: petta pEr korpuji
English: Cow doesn’t give milk
Kannada: dana hAlu koDuvudilla

Tulu: I dAyae barpuja?
English: Why don’t you come?
Kannada: nInu Eke baralla?

Tulu: yAn ellae barpujae
English: I will not come tomorrow
Kannada: nAnu nALe baralla

Tulu: yAn ninan madapujae
English: I will not forget you
Kannada: nAnu ninnannu mareyalla

Tulu: nama nana Epogla tikkuja
English: We will never meet again.
Kannada: nAvu innu yAvattigU sigalla

To make the interrogative form of sentences, we need to add ‘a’ or ‘na’ at the end. If a word or sentence ends in vowel ‘a’, ‘e’, 'ae' or ‘o’, then add ‘na’. If a word or sentence ends in a consonant (half-u), ‘i’ or ‘u’, then add ‘a’. But what is important here is the way we pronounce the sentence to make it a question.

yAn barpae – I come  
yAn barpena? – Do I come? (Here ‘ae’ becomes ‘e’ since ‘ae’ sound is used only at the end of a word)

I barpa – You come
I barpana? – Do you come?

Aye barpe – He comes
Aye barpena? – Does he come?

Al barpal – She comes
Al barpala? – Does she come?

au barpuNDu – It comes
au barpuNDa? – Does it come?

nama barpa – we come
nama barpana? Do we come?

nikulu barpar – You come
nikulu barpara? – Do you come?

akulu barper – They come
akulu barpera? – Do they come?

aikulu barpa – They come
aikulu barpana? – Do they come?

Examples:

Tulu: I sAleg pOpana?
English: Do you go to school?
Kannada: nInu shAlege hOgtIya?

Tulu: and, yAn sAleg pOpae
English: Yes, I go to school.
Kannada: houdu, nAnu shAlege hOgtEne

Tulu: ijji, yAn sAleg pOpujae
English: No, I don’t go to school.
Kannada: illa, nAnu shAlege hOgalla

Instead of saying the entire sentence, we can simply say the verb to answer such questions.

Tulu: Aye ellae barpena?
English: Will he come tomorrow?
Kannada: avanu nALe bartAna?

Tulu: and, barpe
English: Yes, he will come.
Kannada: houdu, bartAne

Tulu: ijji, barpuje
English: No, he will not come.
Kannada: illa baralla

Tulu: ushAr ullana?
English: Are you fine?
Kannada: chennAgiddIya?

Tulu: ellae barpana?
English: Will you come tomorrow?
Kannada: nALe bartIya?

Tulu: akulu barpujera?
English: Will they not come?
Kannada: avaru baralva?

Tulu: chA parpara?
English: Will you drink tea?
Kannada: chahA kuDitIra?

Tulu: onas malpuvara?
English: Will you have lunch?
Kannada: UTa mADtIra?

Tulu: dAla tinpujara?
English: Will you not eat anything?
Kannada: EnU tinnalva?

Tulu: illaDe barpujana?
English: Don’t you come home?
Kannada: manege baralva?

Tulu: illaD mAta ushAr ullera?
English: Is everyone fine at home?
Kannada: maneyalli ellAru chennagiddAra?

Tulu: niNDa kAs uNDa?
English: Do you have money?
Kannada: ninnalli duDDideya?

Tulu: nama patt gaNTeg ettuvana?
English: Will we reach at 10 O’clock?
Kannada: nAvu hattu gaNTege taluptEva?

Tulu: Al kANDae bEga lakkuvala?
English: Will she get up early in the morning?
Kannada: avaLu beLagge bEga ELtALa?

‘and’ means Yes or correct. ‘ijji’ means No or ‘it is not’ or ‘does not exist’. We have another word in Tulu ‘att’ which means No.

‘att’ is used for negating an idea or quality while ‘ijji’ is for actions.  To make it clear, look at the examples below:

I kiraNa? – Are you Kiran?
att, yAn kArtik. – No, I am Karthik.

I pOpana? – Will you go?
ijji – No

undu satyana? – Is this true?
att – No

I Oduvana? – Will you read?
ijji - No

Words used in today’s lesson:
mUlu/mulpa – here
aulu/alpa – there
Olu/olpa – Where
mara/maro – tree
manga – monkey
mast – a lot/very much
kAs – money
nAyilu - dogs 
encha - how
ushAr – Clever/Intelligent
Uru - Village
sAdya - possible
rAtrae - night
EreDa – to/with whom (communicative case)
EreDala – to/with anyone
Er – Who
Erla - anyone
dAyae - why
nana – again/henceforth
nanala – still/yet
Epogla - forever
dAla – anything
mAta – all
patt - ten
bEga – early/soon

Click here to know more verbs.

All right! If you have any questions, feel free to comment. See you next week!

Solmelu!

Saturday, 6 February 2016

Tulu Lesson 3: Simple Present Tense

Hello everyone, welcome back!

Today we are going to learn simple present tense. Simple present tense used to remark habits, general realities, repeated actions or unchanging situations. In Tulu it’s also used for future tense.

As far as I know, there is no such a well-defined rule in the Tulu grammar books or there are very few scholars who wrote about Tulu grammar. As a native speaker, I have observed how the verbs in Tulu are conjugated.  There are two conjugations. Look at the following verbs:

Root verbs:
pO – To go
bare – To write
mAr – To sell
kaDapu – To cross

Aye pOpe – He goes.
Aye barepe – He writes
Aye mAruve – He sells.
Aye kaDapuve – He crosses.

Can you see the difference? Yes, first two verbs are conjugated by adding extra ‘p’ sound and other two verbs are conjugated by adding ‘uv’ sound. So what is the difference between these verbs? If you studied ‘chandas’ in Sanskrit or in any other Indian languages, it is simple! If a root verb takes 2 or less than 2 ‘matras’ (meters) to pronounce, then the sound ‘p’ is added and if a root verb takes more than 2 ‘matras’ to pronounce, then it is conjugated by adding ‘uv’ sound. Please note that in Tulu, words which end with consonant sound has final ‘half-u’ sound as I explained in How to Pronounce. So, while calculating ‘matras’, make sure to consider ‘half-u’ as equal to a vowel.

For those who don’t know about ‘chandas’, let me explain in different way. To add ‘p’ sound to verb conjugation in Simple Present tense, a root verb must be in one of the following cases:
1. Root verb has only one syllable.
2. Root verb should not have more than 2 syllables.  If root verb has 2 syllables, then any of the syllables should not have a long vowel or more than one consonant.

Otherwise, it is conjugated by adding ‘uv’ sound.

Syllable is a unit of pronunciation having one vowel sound, with or without surrounding consonants. The number of times that you hear the sound of a vowel is the number of syllables in a word.
Eg: ‘rAjA’ has 2 syllables rA and jA. 
‘satya’ has 2 syllables sat and ya   

Now take the verb ‘pO’. It has only one syllable. So it can be conjugated as pO + p + personal ending.

The verb ‘bare’ has two syllables ‘ba’ and ‘re’ and each has one short vowel and single consonant. So it can be conjugated as bare + p + personal ending.

The verb ‘mAr’ has two syllables (including final ‘half-u’ sound i.e mA and rŭ) and the first syllable has a long vowel. So it is conjugated as mAr + uv + personal ending.

The verb ‘kaDapu’ has three syllables ‘ka’, ‘Da’ and ‘pu’. So it is conjugated as kaDapu + uv + personal ending.

Let us take one more verb ‘malpu’. It has two syllables ‘mal’ and ‘pu’. First syllable has two consonant sounds. So it is conjugated as malpu + uv + personal ending. Got it?

You do not have to worry about it. I will make two groups for your reference; Class A and Class B.

Class A is for the verbs like ‘pO’ (Infinitive: pOpini) and ‘bare’ (Infinitive: barepini) - To make infinitive form, add ‘pini’ to root verb. Eg: pO+pini=pOpini

Class B is for the verbs like ‘mAr’ (mAruni) and ‘kaDapu’ (kaDapuni) - To make infinitive form, add ‘uni’ to root verb. Eg: mAr+uni=mAruni

Before proceeding further, let us look at all of the personal endings:


Singular
Plural
Pronoun
Ending
Example: pO
Pronoun
Ending
Example: pO
First Person
yAn
ae
pOpae
nama/enkulu
a
pOpa
Second Person
I
a
pOpa
nikulu/Ir
ar
pOpar
Third Person
Masc.
Aye/imbe
e
pOpe
akulu/Ar/mokulu/mEr
er
pOper
Fem.
Al/mOlu
al
pOpal
Neut.
au/undu
uNDu
pOpuNDu
aikulu/undekulu
a
pOpa

learn tulu

yAn pOpae – I go
I pOpa – You go
Aye/imbe pOpe – He goes
Al/mOlu pOpal – She goes
au/undu pOpuNDu – It goes
nama/enkulu pOpa – We go
Ir/nikulu pOpar – You go
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr pOper – They go
undekulu/aikulu pOpa – They go

yAn malpuvae – I do
I malpuva – You do
Aye/imbe malpuve – He does
Al/mOlu malpuval – She does
au/undu malpuNDu – It does (We don’t have to add ‘uv’ sound since personal ending starts from ‘u’ sound. Personal ending ‘uNDu’ directly added to root verb)
nama/enkulu malpuva – We do
Ir/nikulu malpuvar – You do
akulu/mokulu/Ar/mEr malpuver – They do
undekulu/aikulu malpuva – They do


Some of the verbs used in daily conversation:

Class A verbs:

A (Apini) – To become
pO (pOpini) – To go
tU (tUpini) – To see
dI (dIpini) – To place
mI (mIpini) – To bathe
rA (rApini) – To fly
sai (saipini) – To die
bar (barpini) – To come
kaDe (kaDepini) – To grind
paDe (paDepini) – To obtain
tiN (tiNpini) – To eat
uN – (uNpini) To eat (rice or lunch/dinner)
paN (paNpini) – To say/tell
ben (benpini) – To work
ker (kerpini) – To kill
ner (nerpini) – To scold
par (parpini) – To drink
kor (korpini) – To give
bare (barepini) – To write
buDu (buDpini) - To leave

Class B verbs:

uppu/ippu (uppuni/ippuni) – To be
kEN (kENuni) – To hear/ listen /ask
bUr (bUruni) – To fall
jAr (jAruni) – To slip
mAr (mAruni) – To sell
pAr (pAruni) – To run
pAter (pAteruni) – To speak
nInd (nInduni) – To swim
dakk (dakkuni) – To throw
dekk (dekkuni) – To wash
tikk (tikkuni) – To get/meet
untu  (untuni) – To stand
kullu (kulluni) – To sit
lakk (lakkuni) – To get up
kalk (kalkuni) – To shout
bad’k (bad’kuni) – To live
murku (murkuni) – To sink/drown
telipu (telipuni) – To smile/laugh
naDapu (naDapuni) – To walk
balipu (balipuni) – To run
bulipu (bulipuni) – To weep/cry
nalipu (nalipuni) – To dance
malpu (malpuni) – To do
kalpu (kalpuni) – To learn
kApu (kApuni) – To wait
paripu (paripuni) – To tear
parapu (parapuni) – To flow/crawl
maDipu (maDipuni) – To fold
oripu (oripuni) – To save
mugipu (mugipuni) – To finish
menpu (menpuni) – To wake someone up
jeppu (jeppuni) – To sleep
jappu (jappuni) – To get down
leppu (leppuni) – To call
lappu (lappuni) – To measure
kaDpu (kaDpuni) – To cut
kaDapu (kaDapuni) – To cross
torpu (torpuni) – To kick
uripu (uripuni) – To blow
sOpu (sOpuni) – To lose
aDipu (aDipuni) – To sweep
deppu (deppuni) – To remove/take out or to open ( the door)
derpu (derpuni) - To lift
madapu (madapuni) – To forget
korepu (korepuni) – To bark
gobbu (gobbuni) – To play
deng (denguni) – To hide
gend (genduni) – To win
muchchu (muchchuni) – To close
Odu (Oduni) – To read
lAg (lAguni) – To jump
pAD (pADuni) – To put/wear
nUku (nUkuni) – To push/shove
ottu (ottuni) – To press
galas (galasuni) – To use
balas (balasuni) – To serve food
patt (pattuni) – To hold/catch
muTTu (muTTuni) – To touch/reach
kaTT (kaTTuni) – To build/tie
paTT (paTTuni) – To share/distribute
naTT (naTTuni) – To beg
boTTu (boTTuni) – To knock
puTTu (puTTuni)  – To born
Ak (Akuni) – To hit/beat

Whenever I come across new verbs, I will keep updating it in Vocabulary page.

Let us make some short sentences in simple present tense. To begin with, we need to know the structure of a sentence. In Tulu, we have subjects at the beginning and verbs at the end of the sentences. All other items such as objects come between these two. Sometimes objects may come at the beginning and subjects in the middle.  

yAn sAleg pOpe – I go to school. (Kannada: nAnu shAlege hOguttEne)
I sAleg pOpa – You go to school. (Kannada: nInu shAlege hOguttIya)
Aye sAleg pOpe – He goes to school (Kannada: avanu shAlege hOguttAne)
mOlu sAleg pOpal – She goes to school (Kannada: ivaLu shAlege hOguttALe)

enkulu dinola pEpar Oduva – We read news paper daily. (Kannada: nAvu dinA pEpar OduttEve)
Ir vArogu onji katae barepar – You write one story every week. (Kannada: nIvu vArakke ondu kathe bareyuttIri)
akulu tingolgu ora illaDe barper – They come home once a month (Kannada: avaru tingaLige omme manege baruttAre)

nAyi dinola rAtrae korepuNDu – Dog barks at night daily. (Kannada: nAyi dinA rAtri bogaLuttade)
nAyilu dinola rAtrae korepuva - Dogs bark at night daily. (Kannada: nAyigaLu dinA rAtri bogaLuttave)

yAn enna baik’n pratI aitAra dekkuvae – I wash my bike every Sunday. (Kannada: nAnu nanna baikannu pratI bhAnuvAra toLeyuttEne)
nama dinola kANDae mIpa – We take bath every morning. (Kannada: nAvu dinA beLigge snAna mADuttEve)
Aye dinola bayyag gobbuve – He plays every evening. (Kannada: avanu dinA sanje ADuttAne)
sUrya mUDaiD puTTuNdu, paDDaiD murkuNDu – Sun rises in the East and sets in the West. (sUrya pUrvadalli huTTuttade, pashchimadalli muLuguttade)
petta pEr korpuNDu – Cow gives milk. (Kannada: dana hAlu koDuttade)
AkAshoDu pakkilu rApa – Birds fly in the sky.(Kannada: AkAshadalli hakkigaLu hAruttave)

akulu dinola kaNDoDu benper – They work in the field daily. (Kannada: avaru dinA gaddeyalli duDiyuttAre)
Al Epola satya pAterval – She always speaks truth. (Kannada: avaLu yAvAgalU satya mAtADuttALe)
I dinola kANDae chA parpa – You drink tea every morning. (Kannada: nInu dinA beLigge chahA kuDiyuttIya)

enkulu dinoku raDD portu uNpa – We eat (rice) two times a day. (Kannada: nAvu dinakke eraDu sala UTa mADuttEve)

‘uN’ verb only used to indicate eating rice. From ‘uN’ we have the word ‘oNas’ which means lunch or dinner. In South India, normally everyone eat rice for lunch and dinner.

‘tiN’ verb used for other eatables. From ‘tiN’ we have the word ‘teNas’ which means eatable.       

In Tulu, Simple Present Tense also used for future tense to talk about prior plans, strong intentions, fixed arrangements and to make promises or threats.  

yAn ellae illaDe pOpae – I will go home tomorrow. (Kannada: nAnu nALe manege hOguttEne)
yAn aitAra nikk tikkuvae – I will meet you on Sunday. (Kannada: nAnu bhAnuvAra ninage siguttEne)
rAjEsh raDD gaNTeD pira barpe – Rajesh will return in two hours. (Kannada: rAjEsh eraDu gaNTeyalli hinde baruttAne)

yAn bayya ain gaNTeg nigaNT barpae – I will definitely come at 5 o’clock in the evening. (Kannada: nAnu sanje aidu gaNTege khaNDita baruttEne)
mAtala sama ApuNDu. – Everything will be fine.(Kannada: ellavU sari Aguttade)
yAn nikk kApuvae – I will wait for you. (Kannada: nAnu ninage kAyuttEne)
I enan madapuva – you will forget me. (Kannada: nInu nannannu mareyuttIya)


New words used in today’s lesson:
dina/dino – day
dinola – daily
onji – one
katae – story
vAra/vAro – week
tingolu – month
ora – once
ill – house
sAlae – school
nAyi – dog
rAtrae – night
aitAra – Sunday
pratI – every
kANDae – morning
bayya – evening
mUDai – east
paDDai - west
chA – tea
raDD – two
portu – time
petta – cow
pEr – milk
AkAsha/AkAsho – sky
pakki – bird
kaNDa/kaNDo – field
Epola – always
satya – truth
ellae – tomorrow
gaNTe – hour
mAtha – all
mAthala – everything
sama/sari – correct

Please try to make sentences using other verbs listed above. If you need help, feel free to comment. See you next week!


Solmelu! (Thanks!)