Tuesday, 28 November 2017

Tulu Lesson 45: How to Make Plural Nouns

namaskAra! Welcome back!

mAterla encha ullar? saukhya ate? ini nama tuluTu bahuvachana padoklen encha malpunu’nd teriyonuga. Today let us learn how to make plural nouns in Tulu.

If you remember, we have already learned plural suffixes in Tulu in the first lesson. Today let us learn more about each suffix in detail.

As you know, we have following suffixes to make plural nouns in Tulu:

  • ‘lu’/‘kulu’ ಲು/ಕುಲು
  • ‘er’ ಎರ್
  • ‘allu’ (aDlu) ಅಲ್ಲು (ಅಡ್ಲು)

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Alright! Now let me explain how and when to use each suffix. We will first go with ‘allu’ since it is the easiest one.

1. ‘allu’ (aDlu) ಅಲ್ಲು (ಅಡ್ಲು– used with human nouns only (both masculine and feminine nouns)

This suffix is only used to make the nouns of relationship plural.

appae + allu >>> appaellu ಅಪ್ಪೆ್ಲ್ಲು (Mothers)
amme + allu >>> ammallu ಅಮ್ಮಲ್ಲು (Fathers)
palaye + allu >>> palayallu ಪಲಯಲ್ಲು (Elder brothers)
megye + allu >>> megyallu ಮೆಗ್ಯಲ್ಲು (Younger brothers)
pali + allu >>> paliyallu ಪಲಿಯಲ್ಲು (Elder sisters)
megdi + allu >>> megdyallu ಮೆಗ್ದಿಯಲ್ಲು (Younger sisters)
boDedi + allu >>> boDedyallu ಬೊಡೆದ್ಯಲ್ಲು (Wives)
kaNDane + allu >>> kaNDanallu ಕಂಡನಲ್ಲು (Husbands)

It was really easy right?  OK. Now let us look at ‘er’

2. ‘er’ ಎರ್ - used with human nouns only (both masculine and feminine nouns)

This suffix is mainly used with nouns of relationship and human names to give respect. Also, it is used with ‘a’ ending human nouns to make them plural or to give respect to a single person.  


Nouns of relationship with respect:

amme ಅಮ್ಮೆ >>> ammer ಅಮ್ಮೆರ್ (Father)
palaye ಪಲಯೆ >>> palayer ಪಲಯೆರ್ (Elder Brother)
aNNe ಅಣ್ಣೆ >>> aNNer ಅಣ್ಣೆರ್ (Elder Brother)
bhAve ಭಾವೆ >>> bhAver ಭಾವೆರ್ (Brother in law)
ajje ಅಜ್ಜೆ >>> ajjer ಅಜ್ಜೆರ್ (Grand Father)

Human names with respect:

rAma ರಾಮ >>> rAmer ರಾಮೆರ್ (Rama)
krishNa ಕೃಷ್ಣ >>> krishNer ಕೃಷ್ಣೆರ್ (Krishna)
harIsha ಹರೀಶ >>> harIsher ಹರೀಶೆರ್ (Harisha)

 ‘a’ ending human nouns in plural forms or with respect:

javana ಜವನ >>> javaner ಜವನೆರ್ (Young men/youths)
paraba ಪರಬ >>> paraber ಪರಬೆರ್ (Old men)
kalva ಕಲ್ವ >>> kalver ಕಲ್ವೆರ್ (Thieves)
buddhivanta ಬುದ್ಧಿವಂತ >>> buddhivanter ಬುದ್ಧಿವಂತೆರ್ (Wisemen)
pedda ಪೆದ್ದ >>> pedder ಪೆದ್ದೆರ್ (Fools)
tuluva ತುಲುವ >>> tuluver ತುಲುವೆರ್ (Tuluvas)
baNTa ಬಂಟ >>> baNTer ಬಂಟೆರ್ (Bunts)
sadasya ಸದಸ್ಯ >>> sadasyer ಸದಸ್ಯೆರ್ (Members)
rAja ರಾಜ >>> rAjer ರಾಜೆರ್ (Kings)
dEva ದೇವ >>> dEver ದೇವೆರ್ (Gods)
rakkasa ರಕ್ಕಸ >>> rakkaser ರಕ್ಕಸೆರ್ (Demons)
gurikAra ಗುರಿಕಾರ >>> gurikArer ಗುರಿಕಾರೆರ್ (Presidents/ head men)

This form is used for both making plural nouns and giving respect when speaking about a single person. However, sometimes the nouns like ‘dEver’ is used as a singular noun with respect and can be pluralized by adding an additional ‘lu’ suffix (dEverlu).


3. ‘lu’/‘kulu’ ಲು/ಕುಲು - used with both human (masculine and feminine nouns) and non-human nouns (Neuter nouns)

This suffix is mainly used with non-human nouns to make them plural. Also, it is used with human nouns which do not end in ‘a’ sound to make them plural or to give respect to a single person. 

Non-human nouns in plural forms:

petta ಪೆತ್ತ >>> pettalu ಪೆತ್ತಲು (Cows)
nAyi ನಾಯಿ >>> nAyilu ನಾಯಿಲು (Dogs)
mara ಮರ >>> marakulu ಮರಕುಲು (Trees)
dai ದೈ >>> daikulu ದೈಕುಲು (Plants)
sudae ಸುದೆ್ >>> sudekulu ಸುದೆಕುಲು (Rivers)
pakki ಪಕ್ಕಿ >>> pakkilu ಪಕ್ಕಿಲು (Birds)
pili ಪಿಲಿ >>> pilikulu ಪಿಲಿಕುಲು (Tigers)
pU ಪೂ >>> pUkulu ಪೂಕುಲು (Flowers)
angi ಅಂಗಿ >>> angilu ಅಂಗಿಲು (Shirts)
bUku ಬೂಕು >>> bUkulu ಬೂಕುಲು (Books)

Human nouns (which do not end in ‘a’ sound) in plural forms or with respect:

dani ದನಿ >>> danikulu ದನಿಕುಲು (Masters)
pagemAni ಪಗೆಮಾನಿ >>> pagemAnilu ಪಗೆಮಾನಿಲು (Enemies)
naramAni ನರಮಾನಿಲು >>> naramAnilu ನರಮಾನಿಲು (Human beings)
mantri ಮಂತ್ರಿ >>> mantrilu ಮಂತ್ರಿಲು (Ministers)
rAjakAraNi ರಾಜಕಾರಣಿ >>> rAjakAraNilu ರಾಜಕಾರಣಿಲು (Politicians)
guru ಗುರು >>> gurukulu ಗುರುಕುಲು (Gurus)
svAmIji ಸ್ವಾಮೀಜಿ >>> svAmIjilu ಸ್ವಾಮೀಜಿಲು (Swamijis)
pUjAri ಪೂಜಾರಿ >>> pUjArilu ಪೂಜಾರಿಲು (Poojaris)
AN ಆಣ್ >>> ANulu ಆಣುಲು (Boys)
poNNu ಪೊಣ್ಣು >>> poNNulu ಪೊಣ್ಣುಲು (Girls)

You may think what is the difference between suffixe ‘lu’ and ‘kulu’? Why some nouns take ‘lu’ suffix and some take ‘kulu’? Why the plural form of ‘pili’ is ‘pilikulu’, but the plural form of ‘petta’ is ‘pettalu’ and not ‘pattakulu’?  If you remember TuluLesson 3: Simple Present Tense, you know there are two types of conjugations in Simple Present Tense depending on the ‘matras’ (meters), a root verb takes to pronounce. The same rule applies here. If a noun takes 2  ‘matras’ to pronounce, then the suffix ‘kulu’ is used to make them plural. If a noun takes more than 2 ‘matras’ to pronounce, then the suffix ‘lu’ is used.

pili  >>> pi + li >>> 1+1= 2 matras

petta >>> pet + ta >>> 2+1= 3 matras
nAyi >>> nA + yi >>> 2+1= 3 matras
pU >>> 2 matras

Native Tulu speakers can use these suffixes appropriately without knowing about this rule. However, some may do mistakes when they come across some rarely used nouns or new nouns. Knowing this rule may help new learners to avoid mistakes when using plural forms in Tulu.  

That’s all we had today. To avoid any confusion, here is the summary of today’s lesson.

  • To make relationship nouns plural, use the suffix ‘allu’. (appaellu, palayallu etc.)
  • To give respect when using relationship nouns, use the suffix ‘er’. (ammer, ajjer etc.)
  • To give respect when using human names, use the suffix ‘er’. (rAmer, krishNer etc.)
  • To make plural or to give respect when using human nouns which end in ‘a’ sound, use the suffix ‘er’ (kalver, paraber, tuluver etc.)
  • To make plural or to give respect when using human nouns which do not end in ‘a’ sound, use the suffix ‘lu’ or ‘kulu’ depending on the ‘matras’.  (danikulu, mantrilu, gurukulu, naramAnilu etc.)
  • To make all non-human nouns plural, use the suffix ‘lu’ or ‘kulu’ depending on the ‘matras’.  (pettalu, pilikulu, pakkilu etc.)

If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu J

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Bye!

Friday, 25 August 2017

Tulu Lesson 44: enku paNambUrugu pOyilekAND

namaskAra! Welcome back!

“enku paNambUrugu pOyilekAND” (It’s like Enku went to Panambur) is a Tulu saying. Enku is a foolish guy who once went to Panambur for no reason. When anyone is seen going to somewhere for no reason or anyone go to somewhere and return fruitlessly, then people say “enku paNambUrugu pOyilekaAND”.  There is a folk story behind this saying which I am going to tell you in Tulu today. I will not translate this story to English/Kannada as I think it will not help you to learn Tulu language. But I will explain the meaning of each word used in the story in English. Read the story completely first and try to understand it in Tulu. If you didn’t understand any of the words, then you can look at meaning in English. Here is the audio file you can listen while reading the story.


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kUlUruDu dumbori malla sirivante ittegae. Ayeg enku paNpi ori bEledAye itte. Aye bajI pedde. onji dina rAtrae danikulu enkunu lett’d “ellae I paNambUrugu ora pOdu baroDumbae” pand paNper. enku “Avu danikulae” pand paNpe. manadAni kANDae enku bEga lakk’d “dani kODae rAtrae paNambUrugu pOvoDund panter, daniTa paND’d bEga pidaDuvae” pand enn’d danina kOneg pOpe. ANDa dani nanala lakk’dittijer. “dani lakkunenge kAt’NDa portApuNDu, yAn ittene paNamUrugu pOdu bEga batt’NDa danik kushi Avu” pand enn’d paNambUrugu pidaDuve. naDattonde paNambUru muTTa pOpe enku. 

mulpa dani lakk’d enkunu nADuver. ANDa enku Olla tOjuje.  anchene madyAna ApuNDu. paNambUrugu pOtina enku pira barpe. apaga dani Ayen lett’d “indambae enku, I Olitta? ninan ini yAn paNambUrugu pOyerae pantini atambae?” pand kENuver. “yAn kANDene paNambUrugu pOdu battae danikulae” pand enku paNpe. danik sOdyaAND. “anda! I paNabUrugu pOdu dAda malta?” dani keNuver. “Ir dAda malpoDund pantijar danikulae. kAli pOdu bariyerae pantini. ancha yAn paNambUrugu pOdu battae” enku paNpe. unden kEND’d alpa ittina mAterla telipuver. 

ErANDala kAraNadAntae ODela pONDa att’Da pOyina bElae Avandae pira batt’NDa “enku paNambUrugu pOyileka AND” pand jana paNper. 

ಕೂಲೂರುಡು ದುಂಬೊರಿ ಮಲ್ಲ ಸಿರಿವಂತೆ ಇತ್ತೆಗೆ್. ಆಯೆಗ್ ಎಂಕು ಪಣ್ಪಿ ಒರಿ ಬೇಲೆದಾಯೆ ಇತ್ತೆ. ಆಯೆ ಬಜೀ ಪೆದ್ದೆ. ಒಂಜಿ ದಿನ ರಾತ್ರೆ್ ದನಿಕುಲು ಎಂಕುನು ಲೆತ್ತ್‌ದ್ "ಎಲ್ಲೆ್ ಈ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಒರ ಪೋದು ಬರೊಡುಂಬೆ್" ಪಂದ್ ಪಣ್ಪೆರ್. ಎಂಕು "ಆವು ದನಿಕುಲೆ್" ಪಂದ್ ಪಣ್ಪೆ. ಮನದಾನಿ ಕಾಂಡೆ್ ಎಂಕು ಬೇಗ ಲಕ್ಕ್‌ದ್ "ದನಿ ಕೋಡೆ್ ರಾತ್ರೆ್ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋವೊಡುಂದ್ ಪಂತೆರ್, ದನಿಟ ಪಂಡ್‌ದ್ ಬೇಗ ಪಿದಡುವೆ್" ಪಂದ್ ಎನ್ನ್‌ದ್ ದನಿನ ಕೋನೆಗ್ ಪೋಪೆ.ಆಂಡ ದನಿ ನನಲ ಲಕ್ಕ್‌ದಿತ್ತಿಜೆರ್. "ದನಿ ಲಕ್ಕುನೆಂಗೆ ಕಾತ್‌ಂಡ ಪೊರ್ತಾಪುಂಡು, ಯಾನ್ ಇತ್ತೆನೆ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋದು ಬೇಗ ಬತ್ತ್ಂಡ ದನಿಕ್ ಕುಶಿ ಆವು" ಪಂದ್ ಎನ್ನ್‌ದ್ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪಿದಡುವೆ. ನಡತ್ತೊಂದೆ ಪಣಂಬೂರು ಮುಟ್ಟ ಪೋಪೆ ಎಂಕು.

ಮುಲ್ಪ ದನಿ ಲಕ್ಕ್‌ದ್ ಎಂಕುನು ನಾಡುವೆರ್. ಆಂಡ ಎಂಕು ಓಲ್ಲಾ ತೋಜುಜೆ. ಅಂಚೆನೆ ಮದ್ಯಾನ ಆಪುಂಡು. ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋತಿನ ಎಂಕು ಪಿರ ಬರ್ಪೆ. ಅಪಗ ದನಿ ಆಯೆನ್ ಲೆತ್ತ್‌ದ್ "ಇಂದಂಬೆ್ ಎಂಕು ಈ ಓಲಿತ್ತ? ನಿನನ್ ಇನಿ ಯಾನ್ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋಯೆರೆ್ ಪಂತಿನಿ ಅತಂಬೆ್?" ಪಂದ್ ಕೇಣುವೆರ್. "ಯಾನ್ ಕಾಂಡೆನೆ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋದು ಬೈದೆ್ ದನಿಕುಲೆ್" ಪಂದ್ ಎಂಕು ಪಣ್ಪೆ. ದನಿಕ್ ಸೋದ್ಯಾಂಡ್. "ಅಂದ! ಈ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋದು ದಾದ ಮಲ್ತ?" ದನಿ ಕೇಣುವೆರ್. "ಈರ್ ದಾದ ಮಲ್ಪೊಡುಂದ್ ಪಂತಿಜರ್ ದನಿಕುಲೆ್, ಕಾಲಿ ಪೋದು ಬರಿಯೆರೆ್ ಪಂತಿನಿ. ಅಂಚ ಯಾನ್ ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋದು ಬತ್ತೆ್" ಎಂಕು ಪಣ್ಪೆ. ಉಂದೆನ್ ಕೇಂಡ್‌ದ್ ಅಲ್ಪ ಇತ್ತಿನ ಮಾತೆರ್ಲ ತೆಲಿಪುವೆರ್.

ಏರಾಂಡಲ ಕಾರಣದಾಂತೆ್ ಓಡೆಲ ಪೋಂಡ ಅತ್ತ್‌ಡ ಪೋಯಿನ ಬೇಲೆ್ ಆವಂದೆ್ ಪಿರ ಬತ್ತ್‌ಂಡ "ಎಂಕು ಪಣಂಬೂರುಗು ಪೋಯಿಲೆಕ ಆಂಡ್" ಪಂದ್ ಜನ ಪಣ್ಪೆರ್.
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1. kUlUru = Kulur, A place in Mangalore; kUlUruDu = in Kulur (Locative case)
2. dumbu = Ago, Old days, long back
3. ori = a, a man; dumbu + ori = dumbori
4. malla = big
5. sirivante = Rich man; malla sirivante = very rich man
6. itte = He was; ‘gae’ =  Reporting Particle used at the end of a sentence which can be translated as “It is said that”.  
7. Aye = He; Ayeg = To him (Dative case)
8. paNpi = saying (Present Adjectival Participle);  enku panpi jana = A person called (named) Enku
9. bEledAye = worker (Masculine); bElae = Work; bEleda + Aye = bEledAye
10. bajI = Mere, only
11. pedde = Foolish (Masculine); bajI pedde = very foolish guy
12. onji dina = one day
13. rAtrae = night; onji dina rAtrae = One night
14. dani = Lord, Master; danikulu = plural of ‘dani’, a respectful form used to refer to a master; danikulae = addressing a master (Vocative case)  
15. lett’d = having called (Past Adverbial Participle)
16. ellae = tomorrow
17. I = You
18. paNambUru = Panambur, a place in Mangalore; paNambUrugu = To Panambur (Dative case)
19. ora = once
20. pOdu = Having gone (Past Adverbial Participle)
21. baroDu = should come (Potential Mood); pOdu baroDu = should go and come; ‘mbae’ suffix used to address people (“mbae’’ is the male form and “de” is female form). It is extremely informal and can only be used to address close friends, siblings or younger people.
22. pand = that (Reporting Particle)
23. paNper = He/She tells; paNpe = He tells
24. Avu = Okay
25 manadAni = Next day
26 KANDae = Morning
27. bEga = soon
28. lakk’d = Having Got up, (Past Adverbial Participle)
29. kODae = Yesterday
30. pOvoDu = should go, (Potential Mood); pOvoDu+pand=pOvoDund
31. panter = He/She has told
32. daniTa= To/with Master (Communicative case)
33. paND’d = Having said (Past Adverbial Participle)
34. pidaDuvae = I will depart
35. enn’d = having thought (Past Adverbial Participle)
36. danina = Master’s (Genitive case)
37. kOnae = Room; kOneg = To the room
38. pOpe= He goes
39. ANDa = But
40. nanala=yet
41. lakk’dittijer = He/She had not got up
42. lakkunenge=till getting up (Postposition)
43. kAt’NDa = If waited (Subjunctive Mood)
44. portu=time or late; ApuNDu=It will become; portu+ ApuNDu=portApuNDu=It will be late
45. yAn = I
46. ittae = now; ittene=now only (Emphatic Particles)
47. batt’NDa = If came (Subjunctive Mood)
48. danik To Master (Dative case)
49. kushi = Happy
50. Avu = It may become; danik kushi Avu= Master may feel happy 
51. pidaDuve = He departs
52. naDattondu= walking (Present Adverbial Participle); naDattonde = walking only (Emphatic Particles)
53. paNambUru muTTa= till Panambur (Postposition)
54. mulpa= Here
55. nAduver = He/She searches
56. Olla = Anywhere
57. tOjuje = He is not visible
58. ancha = Thus, like that; anchene =  like that only (Emphatic Particles)
59. madyAna = afternoon; madyAna ApuNDu = It will be afternoon
60. pOtina = gone (Past Perfect Adjectival Participle); pOtina enku = Enku who had gone
61. pira = back; pira barpe = He returns
62. apaga = Then
63. indambae = Hey; ‘indambae’ used to address people (‘indambae’ is the male form and ‘indade’ is the female form; ‘indaya’ is gender-less form which can be used for both male or female). It is extremely informal and can only be used to address close friends, siblings or younger people. (‘indeye’ is the respectful form used to address elders)
64. Olu = Where; Olitta = Where were you?
65. ninan = you (Accusative case)
66. ini = Today
67. pOyerae = To go (Infinitive)
68. pantini = have told (Past Perfect Gerund)
69. att = No; ata = Isn’t it/right?; ata+mbae=atambae
70. kENuver = He/She asks
71. battae = I came
72. sOdya = surprise/shock; sOdya+AND =sOdyAND=Got surprised.  
73. and = Yes; anda = is it?
74. dAda= what?
75. malta = You did
76. malpoDu = should do (Potential Mood); malpoDu+pand=malpoDund
77. pantijar = You have not told
78. kAli = Only
79. bariyerae = To come, (Infinitive)
80. unden = It (Accusative case)
81. kEnd = Having heard (Past Adverbial Participle)
82. alpa = There
84. mAterla = all
85. telipuver = They laugh
86. ErANDala = Anyone
87. kAraNa = reason; dAntae=without; kAraNadAntae= without reason
88. ODela = Anywhere
89. pONDa = If went (Subjunctive Mood)
90. att’Da = Or
92. bElae = work, job
93. Avandae = having not become, having not completed (Negative Adverbial Participle)
94. pOyileka = like went (Postposition)
95. AND = It became, It’s done
96. jana = people

If you find difficulties in understanding any of the words used in the story, please leave a comment. If you find this lesson helpful, please share it with your friends who wish to learn Tulu :)

Bye!

Tuesday, 21 February 2017

Tulu Lesson 43: Particles

namaskAra! Welcome back!

Particles are uninflected words that don’t exactly belong to another class of words (such as adverbs, etc.) but serve a function within the sentence.

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‘e’ or ‘ne’

These are emphatic particles used to emphasize a word. This can be translated as “only”, “just”, “merely”, “indeed” etc.

‘ne’ is used after a final vowel ‘a’, ‘e’, 'ae'.
‘e’ is used after a final vowel ‘i’, ‘u’ or a final consonant (or half-u).

Examples:
mara – marane
rAme – rAmene
appae – appene
kAr – kAre
pakki – pakkiye
onji - onje
guru – guruve
uNDu - uNDe
Ayeg – Ayege
barpe - barpene

Tulu: mara bUruNDu
English: Tree will fall down.
Kannada: mara bILuttade

Tulu: marane bUruNDu
English: Tree only will fall down (Here it emphasizes the tree)
Kannada: marave bILuttade

Tulu: mara bUruNDe
English: Tree will fall down indeed (Here it emphasizes the action of falling)
Kannada: mara bidde bILuttade

Tulu: yAn onje dOsae tiNDini
English: I ate only one Dosa (It emphasizes the insufficiency of a single Dosa – I ate only one Dosa, not much)
Kannada: nAnu onde dOse tindiddu

Tulu: yAne onji dOsae tiNDini
English: I only ate one Dosa (I am the one who ate Dosa, not anyone else.)
Kannada: nAne ondu dOse tindiddu

Tulu: Aye ellae barpene
English: He will come tomorrow anyhow (It emphasizes the action of coming – I am sure he will come tomorrow)
Kannada: avanu nAle bande bartAne

Tulu: Aye ellene barpe
English: He will come tomorrow only (It emphasizes the time of coming ‘tomorow’ – He will come tomorrow not other day)
Kannada: avanu nALeye bartAne

Tulu: Ayene ellae barpe
English: He himself will come tomorrow (He only will come tomorrow not anyone else)

Tulu: Aye ninane lettini
English: He called you only (not others)
Kannada: avanu ninnanne karediddu

Tulu: Ir ellae baroDe
English: You should come tomorrow in any case
Kannada: nIvu nALe barle bEku

Tulu: yAn jeidine (jeidini + e) ijji
English: I did not sleep at all
Kannada: nAnu malage illa

Tulu: Aye barpuje
English: He does not come
Kannada: avanu baruvudilla

Tulu: Aye barpine (barpini + e) ijji
English: He does not come at all
Kannada: avanu baruvude illa

Tulu: Al eNDa pAterujal
English: She does not speak with me
Kannada: avaLu nannalli mAtADuvudilla

Tulu: Al eNDa pAterune ijji
English: She does not speak with me at all
Kannada: avaLu nannalli mAtADuvude illa

Interrogative particles ‘a’, ‘na’, (‘e’, ‘ne’)

‘These are interrogative particles used in simple questions. ‘e’/‘ne’ are very polite and used to give respect when speaking to elders/strangers.
‘na’ and ‘ne’ are used after a final vowel ‘a’, ‘e’, 'ae'.
‘a’ and ‘e’ are used after a final vowel ‘i’, ‘u’ or a final consonant (or half-u).

 Examples:

mara – marana? / marane? - Is it tree?
tUka – tUkana? / tUkane? – Let us see?
Aye – Ayena? / Ayene? – Is it him?
barpe – barpena? / barpene? – Will he come?
mOnae – mOnena? / mOnene? – Is it face?
sari – sariya? / sariye? – Is it correct?
ijji – ijja? / ijje? – No? / Is not there?
pOyi – pOya? / pOye? – Let us go?
guru – guruva? / guruve? – Is it Guru?
uNDu – uNDa? / uNDe? – Is it there?
baroDu – baroDa? / baroDe? – Shall I come?
kaNN – kaNNa? / kaNNe? – Is it eye?
barpar – barpara? / barpare? – Will you come?

Tulu: nama movie’g pOya?
English: Let us go to movie?
Kannada: nAvu movie’ge hOgONva?

Tulu: undu ninna illa?
English: idu ninna maneya?
Kannada: Is this your house?

Tulu: I Epa barpa? iniya, ellena?
English: When will you come, today or tomorrow?
Kannada: nInu yAvAga bartIya? ivatta, nALeya?

Tulu: enkonji upakAra malpuvare?
English: Can you please do me a favor?
Kannada: nanagondu sahAya mADuttIra?

Tulu: yAn irenoTTugu baroDe?
English: Shall I come with you?
Kannada: nAnu nimmoTTige barla?

Tulu: barsa baronduNDe ijje?
English: Is it raining or not?
Kannada: maLe bartideya ilva?

Tulu: aklen leppoDa boDcha?
English: Shall I call them or not?
Kannada: avarannu karIla bEDva?

Tulu: undu eDDena atta?
English: Is this good or not?
Kannada: idu OLLeda alva?

Tulu: anda atta?
English: Yes or no?
Kannada: hauda alva?

Tulu: undu satyana sulla?
English: Is this true or a lie?
Kannada: idu satyava suLLa?

Also, these particles are used to change interrogative pronouns into indefinite pronouns and exclamatory expressions.

Examples:

Er – Era – Someone / Wonder who!
Erna – Ernana – Someone’s / Wonder whose!
enchina – enchinana – Something / Wonder what!
dAda – dAdana – Something / Wonder what!
dAne – dAnna (dAne + na) – Wonder what!
vou – vovva - Something / Wonder which one!
Et – Eta – Wonder how much!
Epa – Epana – Sometime / Wonder when!
Olu – Ola – Somewhere / Wonder where!
ODe – Odena – To somewhere / Wonder whither!
onchi – onchiya – To somewhere / Wonder whither!


Tulu:
Person A: Era ninan lettonduller
Person B: Er?
Person A: Era! enk gottuji

English:
Person A: Somebody is calling you
Person B: Who?
Person A: (Wonder who) I don’t know!

Kannada:
Person A: yAro ninnannu karItiddAre
Person B: yAru?
Person A: yAro! nanage gottilla

Tulu:
Person A: Ar Epa barper?
Person B: Epana!

English:
Person A: When he/she will come?
Person B: Wonder when! (I don’t know)

Kannada:
Person A: avaru yAvAga bartAre?
Person B: yAvAglo!

Tulu: Ayeg dAdana At’ND
English: Something has happened to him
Kannada: avanige Eno Agide

Tulu: akulu mUle Ola uppoDu
English: They should be here (only) somewhere.
Kannada: avaru ille ello irbEku

Tulu: mokulu ODena pOyer
English: They went somewhere
Kannada: avaru elligo hOdaru

‘dAnna’ is used to express doubt and commonly placed after the word with the interrogative particles.

Tulu: Aye illaD ullena dAnna!
English: Maybe, he is at home. I am not sure!
Kannada: avanu maneyalli iddAno Eno!

Tulu: aleg dAda ANDa dAnna!
English: I am not sure what happened to her!
Kannada: avaLige Enu Ayto Eno!

‘la’

This can be used as a simple adverb in English “too/also” or an emphatic particle which can be translated as “even” or a conjunction “and”.

Examples:

Tulu: appaela magalla batter
English: Mother and daughter came
Kannada: tAyiyU magaLU bandaru

Tulu: nAyila puchchaela gobbondulla
English: Dog and Cat are playing
Kannada: nAyi mattu bekku ADuttive

Tulu: enk nAyilena pODigae ApuNDu
English: I am afraid of dogs.
Kannada: nanage nAyigaLa bhaya Agtade

Tulu: enkla nAyilena pODigae ApuNDu
English: I am also afraid of dogs.
Kannada: nanagU nAyigaLa bhaya Agtade

Tulu: enk nAyilenala pODigae ApuNDu
English: I am also afraid of dogs.
Kannada: nanage nAyigaLidU bhaya Agtade

The English usage of “also/too” is unclear. The sentence ‘I am also afraid of dogs’ could mean “In addition to some other person, I am afraid of dogs” or “I am afraid of dogs in addition to other things”. However, the Tulu sentence is clear; 'la' succeeds the word that it modifies.

Tulu: yAnla niklenoTTugu barpae
English: I will come with you too.
Kannada: nAnU nimma jote bartEne

Tulu: yAn dAda paNpae aven malpuvaela
English: I also do what I say
Kannada: nAnu Enu hELtEne adannu mADtEne kUDa

Tulu: yAn onji gaNTaela jeidijae
English: I have not slept for even an hour.
Kannada: nAnu ondu gaNTeyU kUDa malagilla

Tulu: Ar enan lettijer
English: He/She didn’t call me
Kannada: avaru nannannu karililla

Tulu: Arla enan lettijer
English: He/She also did not call me
Kannada: avarU nannannu karIlilla

Tulu: Ar enanla lettijer
English: He/She did not call me too
Kannada: avaru nannannU karIlilla

Tulu: Ar enan lettinla (lettini+la) ijji
English: He/She didn’t even call me
Kannada: aavaru nannannu karilU illa

Tulu: yAn ayen lett’NDala battije
English: Even though I called him, he did not come
Kannada: nAnu avanannu karedarU avanu baralilla

Tulu: akulu battijerDala Ir baroDe
English: Even though they do not come, you should come in any case
Kannada: avaru baradiddarU nIvu barale bEku  

‘la’ is also used to change interrogative pronouns into indefinite pronouns

Examples:

Er – Erla – anyone
Erna – Ernala – anyone’s
enchina – enchinala – anything
dAda – dAla – anything
vou – voula – any of them
Et – Etla – Any quantity / Sufficient
Epa – Epala – Any time / Always
Olu – Olla – Anywhere
ODe – Odela – To anywhere
onchi – onchila – To anywhere


Tulu: illaD Erla ullera?
English: Is there anyone home?
Kannada: maneyalli yArAdarU iddAra?

Tulu: EreDala pAteroDchi
English: Don’t speak with anyone
Kannada: yArallU mAtADabEDa

Tulu: enk dAla boDchi
English: I don’t need anything
Kannada: nanage EnU bEDa

Tulu: namak pariyerae Etla nIr uNDu
English: We have sufficient water to drink
Kannada: namage kuDiyOke sAkashTu nIru ide.

Tulu: sUrye Epala mUDAyiD mUDuve
English: The sun always rises in the east
Kannada: sUrya yAvAgalU pUrvadalli mUDuttAne

Tulu: Aye Olla tOjuje
English: He is not visible anywhere
Kannada: avanu ellU kANuttilla

Tulu: Ir ODela pOvoDchi
English: You don’t go anywhere
Kannada: nIvu elligU hOgabEDi

‘gae’

This is a reporting particle which can be translated as “It is said”. When reporting something said by others, we normally use ‘gae’ at the end of sentences. Using ‘gae’ at the end of a sentence shows that the sentence you said was not yours, but it was said by someone else or you got the news from unknown source which cannot be believed true completely.

For example if some people said, "There is a bomb in the bus" (Tulu: bass’D bomb uNDu) and you want to report that, you can say:

Tulu: bass’D bomb uNDugae
English: It is said that there is a bomb in the bus
Kannada: bassalli bomb ideyante

Let us see more examples:

Tulu: janokulu paNper Aye ori kalvegae
English: People say that he is a thief.
Kannada: janaru hELtAre avanobba kaLLanante

Tulu: Aye nikk kAtondullegae
English: He (or someone else) said that he is waiting for you.
Kannada: avanu ninage kAytA iddAne ante

Tulu: akulu ellae barpergae
English: They (or someone else) said that they will come tomorrow
Kannada: avaru nAle bartAre ante

Tulu: ini I nela ochchoDugae
English: It’s said that you should wipe the floor today
Kannada: ivattu nInu nela oresabEkante


‘pand’ / ‘ind

These are not actually particles but past gerunds of verbs ‘paNpini’ (To tell/say) and ‘iNpini’ (To tell/say).

paND’d – pand = Having said
iND’d – ind = Having said

Please review the lesson Tulu Lesson 18: Uses of Gerunds(Verbal Adverbs) to know how these gerunds are used.

Apart from this, ‘pand’ / ‘ind’ can also be used as reporting particle in indirect speech which can be translated as “that” or “said that”. Let us see an example:

Direct speech:
English: He said, "I will not come."
Tulu: Aye paNDe, “yAn barpujae”
Kannada: avanu hELida, “nAnu baralla”

Indirect speech:
English: He said that he would not come.
Tulu: Aye barpuje pand paNDe
Kannada: avanu baralla anta hELida

In spoken Tulu, ‘pand’ / ‘ind’ further shortened into ‘nd’

Tulu: akulu ellae barper’nd panter
English: They (have) said that they would come tomorrow
Kannada: avaru nALe bartAre anta hELiddAre

Tulu: Al illaDe pOvondullal’nd paNDal
English: She said she was going to home
Kannada: avaLu manage hOgtiddALe anta hELidaLu

Tulu: Aye dAda malpoDu’nd kENDe
English: He asked what he should do
Kannada: avanu Enu mADabEku anta kELida

Tulu: yAn Ayeg ellae baroDu’nd paNDae
English: I told him that he should come tomorrow
Kannada: nAnu avanige nALe barabEku anta hELide

Tulu: enk dAda malpoDu’nd gottAvondijji
English: I don’t know (that) what should I do
Kannada: nanage Enu mADbEku anta gottAgtilla

Tulu: yAn nentae I sullu paNpini’nd
English: I thought that you were telling a lie
Kannada: nAnu andukoNDe nInu suLLu hELtiddIya anta

Tulu: yAn, I barpuja’nd enniyae
English: I thought that you don’t come
Kannada: nAnu, nInu baralla anta andukoNDe

‘paNDa’

‘paNDa’ is the subjunctive form of the verb ‘paNpini’ (To tell/say).

paND + Da – paNDa= If said 

Example:

Tulu: Aye enk paNDa yAn ireg paNpae
English: If he tells me, I will tell you
Kannada: avanu nanage hELidare nAnu nimage hELtEne

This word can also be used as a particle which can be translated as ‘means’/ ‘that means’

Tulu: ancha paNDa
English: That means
Kannada: hAgandre

Tulu: mUlu sharat paNDa Er?
English: Who is Sharth here?
Kannada: illi sharat andre yAru?

Tulu: I paNDa enk ishTa
English: I like you (Lit. You mean like for me)
Kannada: nInu andre nanage ishTa

Tulu: tuluTu ____ paNDa dAda?
English: What does ____ mean in Tulu?
Kannada: tuLuvalli ____ andre Enu?

Vocative Particles: E, O, inda, inde, ala, ale, , mbae (mae), de, ya and ye

 

These are used while addressing a person (animal, object etc.) being spoken to

E, O, inda, inde, ala, ale are used before starting a sentence or a word.

Examples,

 

Tulu: O rAma! iDe bala!

English: Hey Rama! Come here!

Kannada: O rAma! Illi bA!

 

Tulu: E! dAda malpuni?

English: Hey! What are you doing?

Kannada: Ey! Enu mADuvudu?

 

Tulu: inda! dettoNu

English: Hey! Take this!

Kannada: igO! takO

 

Tulu: inda maga! iDe bala!

English: Hey Son! Come here!

Kannada: igO maga! Illi bA!

 

Tulu: ala! Ayen tUla!

English: Hey! Look at him!

Kannada: agO! avanannu nODu!

 

Tulu: ala! Aye pOye!

English: Look! He went!

Kannada: agO! Avanu hOda!

 

O, E, inda and ala are informal and can be used for both male and female.

 

‘inde’  is the respectfull form of ‘inda’

 

Tulu: inde! iren leppunu!

English: Hey, (Someone) Calling you!

Kannada: igOLLi! nimmannu kareyuvudu

 

‘ale’  is the respectfull form of ‘ala’

 

Tulu: ale! Era batter!

English: Look! Someone came!

Kannada: agoLLi! yArO bandaru

 

mbae (mae), de, ya and ye are used at the end of a sentence or a word.

 

'mbae'/'mae' is informal or singular. This can be used for only male friends/younger persons – Don’t use this for any one unless your close friend

 

Tulu: E HarIsha! iDe balambae (balamae)!

English: Hey Harish! Come here (man!)

Kannada: Ey HarIsha! Illi bAro!


Tulu: eNaDa kAs ijjimbae (ijjimae)!

English: I don’t have money (dude!)

Kannada: nanna hattira duDDu illavo! (illa kaNo!)

 

Tulu: yAn ellae barondijjaemae!

English: I am not coming tomorrow (man!)

Kannada: nAnu nAle bartillavo! (bartilla kaNo!)

 

'de' is also informal or singular. This can be used for only female friends/younger persons. Don’t use this for any one unless your close friend

 

Tulu: E gItA! Ollade?

English: Hey Geetha! Where are you? (woman!)

Kannada: Ey gItA! elliddIye?

 

Tulu: Av Erde battini?

English: Who is that (who came)? (woman!)

Kannada: adu yAre bandiddu?

 

Tulu: enk ini barrae Apujide!

English: I can’t come today (woman!)

Kannada: nanage ivattu baralikke Aguvudillave! (Aguvudilla kaNe!)

 

'ya' is also informal or singular. This can be used for both male and female friends/younger persons


Tulu: I dAda maltondullaya?

English: What are you doing? (man! Or woman!)

Kannada: nInu Enu mADittiddIyo!/nInu Enu mADuttiddIye!

 

Tulu: E! nama bEga pOyiya!

English: Hey, Let us go soon! (man! Or woman!)

Kannada: Ey! nAvu bEga hOgONa kaNo/kaNe!

 

Tulu: ijjiya! Enk gottuji!

English: No man! (or No woman!), I don’t know!

Kannada: illavo!/illave! nanage gottilla!

 

‘ye’ is the plural or respectful form of ‘ya’ - This can be used for both male and female elders/strangers

Tulu: Ir ollar’ye?

English: Where are you?

Kannada: nIvu elliddIriri?

 

Tulu: ijjiye! yAn barpujae!

English: No (sir!), I don’t come!

Kannada: illari/illa kaNri! nAnu baruvudilla!

 

Tulu: ora iDe baleye!

English: Please come here once!

Kannada: omme illi banniri!

 

The particles 'mbae'/'mae', 'de', 'ya', 'ye' can also be added immediately after ‘inda’, ‘inde’, ‘ala’ and ‘ale’


Examples:


Tulu: indambae! nikk kebi kENujambae?

English: Hey! (man!) Can’t you hear! (Are you deaf?)

Kannada: igoLLa! ninage kivi kELalveno?


Tulu: indade! amma leppuni!

English: Hey! (woman!), Mom is calling you!

Kannada: igoLLe! amma kareyuvudu

 

Tulu: indaya! bEga pOya!

English: Hey! (man! Or woman!), Go quickly!

Kannada: igoLLa! bEga hOga!

 

Tulu: alambae! av Er?

English: Hey (man!) Who is that?

Kannada: agoLLa! Adu yAru?

 

Tulu: alade! Akulu batter!

English: Look! (woman!) They came!

Kannada: agoLLe! Avaru bandaru!

 

Tulu: alaya! aulu tUlaya!

English: Hey! (man! Or woman!) look at there!

Kannada: agoLLa! alli nODa!

 

Tulu: indeye! nama Epa pOpini?

English: Hey! (sir!), When are we going?

Kannada: igoLLi! nAvu yAyAga hOguvudu?

 

Tulu: aleye! Ir baroDugae

English: Hey! (sir!), you should come (they said)

Kannada: agoLLi! nIvu barabEkante

 

Apart from these particles, you can also use words such as mArAya, mArAyti and mArrae

 

mArAya is informal or singular. This can be used for only male friends/younger persons

Tulu: I ora bEga bala mArAya!

English: Come soon (man!)

Kannada: nInu omme bEga bA mArAya!

 

mArAyti is also informal or singular. This can be used for only female friends/younger persons

 

Tulu: ijji mArAyti! av yAn att!

English: No (woman!), it is not me!

Kannada: illa mArAyti! adu nAnu alla!

 

mArrae is respectfull form of mArAya and mArAyti. This can be used for both male and female elders/strangers

 

Tulu: Aye ijjegae mArrae!

English: He is not there (it was told)! (man! Or woman!)

Kannada: avanu illante kaNri! (mArAyare!)'


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Bye!